The topic is lichen sclerosus. We're still dealing with the vulva.
And what happens with lichen sclerosus is that, well, as the name implies,
there's going to be narrowing of the orifice.
What's causing the narrowing, there's atrophy, there will be fibrosis, and scarring of the vulvar skin.
Why is that and how does a patient going to present?
The skin becomes, well, if you're thinking about the vulvar region
and you're thinking about the vestibule, that area, normally, should be rather secretory
and it should be, well, rather moist.
However, when there's atrophy taking place of this area and the sclerosus is scarring,
you can imagine that this area becomes pale gray and parchment-like.
You're going to find that becoming atrophied
and as the name implies, sclerosus becomes--means narrowed
and the area that's being narrowed will be the introitus like in sclerosus.
It causes considerable discomfort and predisposes to acute infection.
Most common after menopause, is who your population most likely will be.
Remember, after menopause, the supply of estrogen starts dropping,
and so therefore, this normal vestibular area or the vulvar skin,
which normally remains quite moist is now becoming incredibly dry or maybe even fibrosed.
Not precancerous, but can be associated with squamous cell carcinoma.
This type of sclerosus usually is not associated with cancer.
However, it may be associated with squamous cell carcinoma.
If you take a look at the area here, on your left,
this image is showing you on the right aspect of the vulva region,
you find the skin to be quite parched and dry.
In addition to that, please take a look at the area of the introitus
and this, you'll find to be quite narrowed.
This patient was approximate 53 years of age and she had undergone menopause.
On the right, you find increased fibrosis
and what the arrow is then pointing to here, it would be exactly that.
The fact that there's going to be increased deposition of collagen increase infiltration of your fibroblast.
All these, then, giving you a gross examination as which we're seeing here on the left with lichen sclerosus.
If the previous topic was dealing with lichen sclerosus,
now, we have a condition called lichen simplex chronicus.
A couple of important differences between lichen simplex chronicus and lichen sclerosus,
two different conditions.
A thickening of the vulvar skin, as you would expect to find with lichen sclerosus as well.
However, here, think of your patient who's rubbing and rubbing
and rubbing this area to the point where now, it's being--it's undergoing a hyperkeratotic type of change.
If you take a look at the histologic examination on your right,
you'll notice at the very top, you have hyperkeratosis.
Next, because of all these rubbing taking place with the patient,
so look for patient who might say,
"Hey, doc, I go out to dinner and I feel quite uncomfortable at times or I feel quite embarrassed
because I find myself itching in my genital region."
There is going to be thickened epidermis.
This is then referred to as being acanthosis and dermal inflammation.
Not precancerous but can be associated once again with squamous cell carcinoma.
Before you move from this topic, make sure that you're quite comfortable with two conditions
that sound alike but ultimately, do exhibit different histologic pattern.
In lichen sclerosus, in here, we have lichen sclerosus, chronicus.