So to recap, varicella is caused by the varicella zoster virus.
It is preventable with a live vaccine.
The incubation period is long. It's up to 21 days.
The patient's gonna start by developing cold-like symptoms
and will become infectious 2 days prior to the start of their rash.
Next, they will develop an itchy rash that's going to crop up over multiple days
and there are going to be lesions present in different stages of maturity.
It typically is diagnosed clinically but there are labs available.
Varicella is usually self-limiting and is managed with symptomatic control.
Complications are less common in childhood but are common in infancy, adulthood,
and the immunocompromised population.
So in a nutshell, diphtheria is caused by a toxin created by the Corynebacterium.
It's transmitted via droplets and contact with contaminated fomites.
Signs and symptoms include a rapid onset of a sore throat, fever, lymphadenopathy, and cough.
The difference between that and the common cold though,
is the patients will develop the strongly adherent and occlusive pseudomembrane
and remember, this cannot be scraped off on exam.
So in a nutshell, fifth disease. This is erythema infectiosum.
It's caused by a virus, the human parvovirus B19.
Symptoms start with a mild fever and then the child will develop the 'slapped-cheek' red rash on their face --
and this is a classic -- and lacy rash on their arms, legs, and trunk.
The diagnostics are just clinical.
You'll look at the patient's rash, its characteristic, and once that rash appears, the child is no longer contagious.
With their rash, they can attend school and daycare.
I'm often writing notes for parents so that they can send their kids back to daycare with fifth.
By the time they have that rash, they're no longer contagious.
And the treatment is symptomatic.
So in a nutshell, roseola is a contagious viral illness.
It starts with a high fever for the first 3-5 days followed by a rash on their trunk.
It's also called roseola infantum or sixth disease.
It's very, very common. Most children will be infected by the time they enter kindergarten.
It is self-resolving and treated with supportive care.
Complications are rare but can include febrile seizures.
So in a nutshell, measles is a viral illness.
It's vaccine-preventable with the MMR.
It is highly contagious and it's transmitted via droplets.
It is smart and it will stay suspended in the air for 2 hours.
Symptoms include a fever, cough, coryza and conjunctivitis, remember the 3 C's, and a rash.
Treatment is supportive and serious complications including death are possible.
So mumps in a nutshell. It's a highly contagious viral illness.
It's also known as epidemic parotitis or infectious parotitis.
It primarily affects the salivary glands. It can be unilateral or bilateral.
It is vaccine-preventable with the MMR.
It can have serious complications including deafness, encephalitis, pancreatitis,
and spontaneous abortion. And there is no treatment.
So in a nutshell, rubella is a contagious viral illness and it is vaccine-preventable with the MMR.
It's also called German measles or 3-day measles and it's typically a mild illness.
It spreads via droplet and vertical transmission from mother to baby,
and serious complications can occur if it's acquired in pregnancy
including spontaneous abortions and congenital rubella syndrome.
This involves cataracts, congenital heart problems including a PDA, and deafness.
It is typically self-limiting so the patient will need symptomatic treatment.
So in a nutshell, conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva.
It's also called pink eye. It's a common eye disease, especially among young children
and it can be unilateral or bilateral. Remember, there are different causes.
Viral pink eye is self-limiting and it will go away.
Bacterial pink eye will also go away but we use antibiotics to limit the course.
Now, there's this other condition ophthalmia neonatorum
which is in the first month of life and it can be viral versus chlamydial versus bacterial
and this is why we give prophylactic antibiotic ointment to all newborns.
This condition requires urgent referral to ophthalmology.
Allergic pink eye, we treat with any histamines and limit triggers.
And irritant pink eye, we sometimes consult poison control if needed and irrigate the eyes.