Lectures

Important Anatomical Points

by Stuart Enoch, PhD
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    00:00 Your main anatomical question will be related to the angle of Louis. So this is your angle of Louis. That corresponds to the lower border of a T4 vertebra and the second intercostal space. I think you had a question in your pre-course assessment, the important structures. You read your answers, but you should know this. What are the important structures? What are the important anatomical points? So if you see a CT scan at this point, what are the things you need to look for? Bifurcation of the trachea? Arch of the aorta. Arch of the aorta, so the ascending. The arch of the aorta. So the end of the ascending aorta and it’s the start of the descending aorta. So that’s there. What else? Azygous vein enters -- Azygous vein enters mostly the SVC at that level, to the superior vena cava. The superior vena cava enters the right atrium at that level. Anything else? Imagine you are seeing a CT section and you’ve seen the T4 vertebra, what else would you expect to see? The thoracic duct. Thoracic duct crosses over from the right to the left at that level. And this is anatomical plane for the superior mediastinum. Superior mediastinum is above this, and the inferior mediastinum is below this. Even though you don’t have to know the anatomy of the heart for the part A, I just quickly draw it so that the rest of it will make sense to you. So, third intercostal space here, sixth intercostal space there, second and apex. So this is the surface anatomy of the heart. So three, six, two, and five, that’s the heart. Then you have the arch of aorta. It divides into left subclavian, left common carotid, and the brachiocephalic trunk. Brachiocephalic trunk divides into common carotid and subclavian. From the brachiocephalic, can you think of any branches from the brachiocephalic trunk? Anterior intercostal? Anterior? Intercostal.

    02:47 Not from the brachiocephalic. The only thing you can think of the brachiocephalic from the arch is your thyroid ima artery. It’s very, very small artery. There’s nothing significant.

    02:58 They’re not from brachiocephalic. They’re from the subclavian. You have the internal carotid going there. So if we can forget about it. So, subclavian, what are branches of the subclavian artery? Vertebral.

    03:12 Vertebral. Internal thoracic.

    03:14 Internal thoracic. Costo -- Costocervical trunk, very good, yeah. Very good. You’re almost there. Fine.

    03:24 I’ll do that. So, the common carotid is coming up, external carotid, internal carotid. We discussed this.

    03:36 So we leave that one side. So this is the subclavian. The subclavian artery, that’s the scalene


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Important Anatomical Points by Stuart Enoch, PhD is from the course Thorax Anatomy.


    Author of lecture Important Anatomical Points

     Stuart Enoch, PhD

    Stuart Enoch, PhD


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