In this talk, let's review
idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Let's start with some epidemiology.
idiopathic Parkinson's disease or idiopathic PD is
one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders.
It has an annual incidence of 4 to 21
cases per 100,000, and that's pretty common.
You may know an individual who
has been affected or have idiopathic PD,
it's one of those things that we frequently
see in the clinic and shows up on test questions.
The mean age of onset is 60 years, there are some
early onset cases or early onset Parkinson's disease,
as well as later onset disease.
And the lifetime risk is about 2% for
men, and slightly younger for women 1.3%.
What are the etiologies, or their causes of idiopathic
Parkinson's disease that we should be aware of?
Well, this is a little bit unclear, there are
some risk factors that are environmental,
but those likely interact polygenetically
with underlying genetic risk factors
and here's a few things
I'd like for you to remember.
There are some risk factors for the
development of idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Studies support that exposure to pesticides,
nitrogen dioxide and history of traumatic brain injury
do increase the likelihood or the potential
of subsequently developing idiopathic PD.
Exposure to certain solvents can also
increase the risk as well as living in various areas,
although those data are more controversial.
In addition, living in close proximity to
industrial plants has been reported in the literature.
Well, water drinking MPTP is probably
the most important occupational exposure
or risk factor for the development
of Parkinson's disease.
And in the lab when we're studying
Parkinson's disease, we look at MPTP models.
Excessive body weight has unclear
association as well as type II diabetes.
Other genetic risk factors does indeed
increase the risk of developing idiopathic PD
and account for the minority of cases.
In general, idiopathic PD is a polygenetic condition.
There's not one specific gene,
but a few rare cases can be seen.
These genes include the alpha-synuclein gene and
abnormalities of that gene, LRRK2 PARK2 and PINK1.
And again, these are present in the
minority of patients that develop idiopathic PD.
The vast majority of patients have
some underlying polygenetic condition
that cannot be determined with
genetic testing and in combination with
a lifetime adverse environmental exposures.