Lectures

Hypothalamus

by Craig Canby, PhD
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    The next structure that’s a part of the diencephalon that I want you to understand is the hypothalamus. Like the thalamus, the hypothalamus is a collection of various nuclei. You can see all kinds of nuclei identified here. So, what we will do next is I will guide you through each one of these hypothalamic nuclear structures. First would be paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. You can see them identified in the image. They are highlighted. Here’s your paraventricular nucleus and here’s your supraoptic nucleus. Collectively, they are involved in the release of antidiuretic hormone, ADH as well as oxytocin. ADH is involved in the regulation of fluid balance, so it helps to conserve water. Less water is then eliminated in the urine as a result of its influence. If there’s a lesion that diminishes ADH concentration, then the individual is no longer able to reabsorb water through the tubular duct structures of the kidney and more water then is voided in the urine. This increased urine production then results in diabetes insipidus. Oxytocin is involved in lactation in women as well as labor or parturition. Oxytocin is a substance that causes uterine contractions. Next is the preoptic area. The preoptic area is shown here in the shaded area. This is a very important area for the regulation of body temperature, also sexual behavior and this helps to define sexual dimorphism. That is the differences in function between men and women. Lesions of the preoptic area would result in loss of control of sexual behavior. Amenorrhea would be another symptom. Then impotence can also be a symptom with a lesion of this area. The anterior hypothalamic nucleus is shown here in red. This too is involved in thermoregulation but it’s going to help cool the body and it helps to regulate...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Hypothalamus by Craig Canby, PhD is from the course Diencephalon.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Regulation of fluid balance
    2. Regulation of temperature
    3. Regulation of satiety
    4. Regulation of hunger
    5. Regulation of circadian rhythm
    1. Impotence
    2. Abnormal lactation
    3. Confabulation
    4. Menorrhagia
    5. Anorexia
    1. Its major function is cooling of the body
    2. Its lesion would result in hypothermia
    3. Its lesion can cause Wernicke’s encephalopathy
    4. It controls sympathetic nervous system
    5. ADH is the major product
    1. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
    2. Arcuate nucleus
    3. Dorsomedial nucleus
    4. Posterior hypothalamic nucleus
    5. Lateral nucleus
    1. It controls satiety and its destruction results in hyperphagia.
    2. It controls hunger and its destruction results in anorexia.
    3. It is involved in memory formation and its destruction results in confabulations.
    4. It releases GnRH and its destruction results in impotence.
    5. It controls sympathetic nervous system and its destruction results in loss of thermoregulation.
    1. Mammillary Body
    2. Supraoptic Nucleus
    3. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
    4. Lateral Area
    5. Dorsomedial Nucleus
    1. Arcuate Nucleus
    2. Posterior Nucleus
    3. Anterior Nucleus
    4. Preoptic area
    5. Mammillary Body

    Author of lecture Hypothalamus

     Craig Canby, PhD

    Craig Canby, PhD


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