So another perspective is
the humanistic perspective
and this was sort of
championed by Carl Rogers
and this humanistic model focuses
on healthy personality development
and it says that the child will
actually learn a lot from the parent
but in a healthier way, so a
personality trait or different things
and it gets those from what it’s learning
in terms of values from its caregivers.
So let’s take a look at what we’re talking
about when we mean a personality trait.
So that is a generally
towards a certain behavior
or pattern of behavior.
So what we’re saying is that
you act in a certain way
and you’re predisposed to that and you
do this in a consistent stable manner.
So it’s not a one-off where you
act a certain way one day,
then you act a different
way another day.
A personality trait is something
that’s a little bit more consistent.
Now, we have two types of traits
that we’re going to talk about.
The first is the surface trait
and these are descriptive
towards an individual behavior.
So are you funny, are you thoughtful?
And so they’re quite clear,
and they’re called surface
because they’re on the surface.
They’re easy to describe
and to identify.
So unlike Freud, this theory focuses on the
conscious instead of the unconsciousness.
So the last two, both Erik Erikson’s
and this humanistic perspective
both are looking, are really
embracing the fact that
the consciousness is going
to play a huge role
as opposed to Freud focused saying
almost everything is due to
latent unconscious drives
or triggers, okay?
Now, think of the child, the child
is at a house with its caregivers
and the humanistic perspective is saying
the child will actually soak up
and learn a lot of the values
and the feedback that its getting from
this growth-promoting environment.
And we think of your typical
set of caregivers or parent
is there and is trying to stimulate the
child, toys, talking, reading, playing,
you know, and positively reinforcing
when the child does something correct
and it’s that that allows to allow the child
to establish and figure out its values
and start to generate what we feel
is that child’s self-concept.
Now the self-concept is made
up of the child’s conscious,
not unconscious, but conscious,
subjective perceptions and
beliefs of themselves.
So you build a self-concept.
And part of that building
of the self-concept
t is based on the feedback that that
child is getting from the parents.
So people choose behaviors
consistent with self-concepts,
and if they experience contradictions
this is known as incongruence.
So if the child is
trying to grow and learn
and start to compile what it
believes is its self-concept
and they deviate from that,
the parent might say, “Well, why did you
do that? You know you don’t do that,”
and the child will then now sort of
readjust and continue the behaviors
that are positively reinforcing and
that align with its self-concept.
If they do things that are inappropriate
they might be considered as incongruence.
Now, let’s take a little closer --
a little bit of a closer
look at personality traits.
So a personality trait is a
generally stable predisposition
towards a specific behavior,
so we’ve mentioned that.
Now, the two types of traits that I want
to look at are, one, surface traits,
and I said those are pretty obvious, right,
so things like talkative, funny, outgoing,
and source traits are the factors
underlying personality and behavior,
so those are a little
bit less obvious.
So what is sort of driving that trait?
And on the side you can
see this acronym of OCEAN
and we have five different things --
openness, conscientiousness, extroversion,
agreeableness, and neuroticism.
And what those refer to are specific traits
that we can link
to an individual,
an individual’s personality and
there’s a range within each.
So the way these came to be
are through some researchers
looking at what’s available and kind of putting
them into different categories or bins.
So let’s walk through these.
A personality test can be
employed to characterize
an individual’s surface
versus source trait profile.
So you may have, and if you’re really
interested you can just Google these,
there are tons of them, but you
can look up a personality test
and the test will ask you to rate
yourself in these certain situations.
For example, you know, if you are
in an elevator with somebody,
how likely are you that you would say
hello or would you spark a conversation?
Would you look at them or would
you look away from them?
And you answer all these different
questions and it’ll start to
map out what is your personality,
and then using that we can tease out
well which ones are clear surface traits
and which ones are
more source traits.
So Raymond Cattell actually
identified 16 surface traits
and identified these as primary factors,
and then he had five global
factors or source traits.
Then McCrae & Costa used a similar
method of factor analysis
to identify what they call the
Big Five Personality Traits
and that’s what you see
here on the right.
So you should be
familiar with those five
and I’ve kind of put them in that way that’s
easier to remember the acronym of OCEAN.