HIV: Transmission and Prognosis (Nursing)

by Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

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    00:01 Okay so where is HIV found? What we found at infectious levels in blood semen vaginal and cervical secretions rectal secretions and breast milk.

    00:12 Okay so that's a lot of body fluids, right? That's part of a large gamut representative of the body fluids in the average body.

    00:20 But although HIV can be detected in other fluids, including saliva.

    00:25 These fluids don't produce a transmission risk.

    00:29 So we've got where there found at infectious levels, they're also detected in saliva and some other fluids, but they don't pose a risk for transmission.

    00:39 Go back up to that list up there infectious levels in blood semen vaginal and cervical secretions, rectal secretions and breast milk.

    00:51 Alright, so if someone wasn't getting treatment is virus levels are going to be getting higher and higher look at all the ways another human could be exposed to HIV and infectious levels.

    01:03 Anytime they come into contact with any of those fluids that have HIV at a high enough load.

    01:11 So know where HIV is found in the human body and know the most likely areas where it would cause an infectious transmission.

    01:20 That is why HIV testing matters the earlier, they're diagnosed the sooner They can start effective treatments like antiretroviral medications.

    01:29 Now these treatments can reduce the level of HIV in the blood to such a low level but the blood test can't detect it.

    01:36 That's our goal.

    01:38 That's what we'd like for every patient who's hiv-positive.

    01:41 Start this medication plan and I'll get the levels in their blood so it cannot be detected.

    01:47 So people living with HIV whose viral load is confirmed as undetectable cannot pass on HIV.

    01:55 Wow, that's worth pausing for a moment.

    01:57 That is amazing compared to what when this disease first came out what we thought and what is possible now.

    02:06 I wish I could use the words to explain to you how amazing this is, but that's the goal of getting diagnosed getting treatment because we want to get that viral load low so we can limit how many other people are transmitted and able to be infected with this virus.

    02:25 So what are the things that you can educate patients about doing about ways to prevent transmission.

    02:30 First and most effective is getting that viral load down but there's other things you can use male condoms or internal female condoms during sex.

    02:39 That's another way that you can prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    02:45 If the patient is an IV drug abuser.

    02:47 Hey pause for a minute just there.

    02:50 If they are an IV drug abuser, our job is not to judge them but to help them take steps toward health.

    02:59 So if they're an IV drug abuser, you want to help them to understand the importance of using clean needle and syringe and to never share equipment.

    03:08 All right, this is a touchy subject.

    03:10 You can't just hand them a brochure and it's going to happen.

    03:13 This involves a very open therapeutic conversation with someone that acknowledges, Hey, I mean, I've noticed that you've shared that you've used IV drugs.

    03:23 This is why I want you to understand the risks of sharing if the patient's HIV positive they could pass the disease on to others if they're not HIV positive.

    03:33 They have the risk of picking up HIV and other things themselves like hepatitis.

    03:39 Now, if a woman's pregnant and living with HIV, the virus in her blood could pass into the baby's body during birth or afterwards through breastfeedingm so we want to make sure they get treatment and they get tested taking HIV treatment and becoming undetectable eliminates the risk of passing it on to people that we really care about.

    04:01 So, what's the prognosis for HIV? Well, that's my favorite part of this story because even though we don't have a cure with the right treatment and support people living with HIV really can live long and healthy lives.

    04:15 Because fewer and fewer people are developing AIDS now than when this initially started became aware of it.

    04:21 It's because of the treatments we have for HIV that are available.

    04:25 But if the antiretroviral treatment is only effective if the medication is taken daily.

    04:31 See here's the hard part.

    04:34 You can't afford to skip or miss a day if you're on the treatment for it.

    04:38 So you really have to make sure the patient understands.

    04:41 Hey in order for this to be effective.

    04:44 It's very important that you take it every day in roughly the same time.

    04:47 So we need to look for a system that's going to work for you.

    04:50 You how do you make sure that you don't run out if you're going to travel you need to have extra doses with you.

    04:55 I mean, what are the resources? Do you have the availability the financial resources to pay for the medication? Do we need to get you on a program Because antiretroviral treatment is amazing only if it's taken the way it's ordered and that's going to be least everyday.

    05:13 So we as health care providers, we play a really important role in helping patients understand how important it is to committing to taking the treatment the way that it's ordered.

    05:23 It's no easy thing.

    05:24 I mean, it's hard to remember something every day, but that's what it takes in order for someone to have a really positive prognosis who's HIV infected.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture HIV: Transmission and Prognosis (Nursing) by Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN is from the course Antiviral Medications (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Saliva
    2. Breast milk
    3. Blood
    4. Semen
    1. Breast milk
    2. Rectal secretions
    3. Blood
    4. Semen
    5. Saliva
    1. External (male) condoms
    2. Internal (female) condoms
    3. Precautions during pregnancy
    4. Taking HIV treatment drugs
    5. Not sharing food utensils

    Author of lecture HIV: Transmission and Prognosis (Nursing)

     Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

    Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

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