HIV: Life Cycle and Drug Resistance (Nursing)

by Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

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    00:00 Hi! Welcome to our video series on HIV.

    00:04 Now in this one, we're going to take a look at the HIV life cycle.

    00:07 Whoa Whoa! Stay with me.

    00:09 It is more exciting than it sounds I promise, because if you've been around long enough or if you read the history HIV used to terrify us.

    00:19 We thought it was a death sentence but not anymore and these are the drugs that have helped us achieve that.

    00:27 Now they're not a cure, but they can extend life and help people live full and healthy lives with HIV.

    00:34 So let's take a look at the results of this and how things work together because this is really exciting.

    00:42 Okay so how does the immune human immunodeficiency virus replicate? Well, here's the bad news see it goes after a person's own cells.

    00:53 It replicates at the expense of the CD4 T-cell.

    00:57 Now CD4 T-cells their helper cells, It's a type of white blood cell.

    01:02 It's supposed to defend the person right? It's a key component of the immune system.

    01:08 So HIV invades these cells and talks them into reprograms them to replicate the virus HIV.

    01:19 That's why it's at the expense of a person's own CD4 T-cells.

    01:25 So let's do a review of that life cycle got a great picture for you there.

    01:30 Where you see how HIV attaches to these cells because HIV can't grow or reproduce on its own.

    01:38 This is like that roommate that doesn't pay rent that you cannot get rid of right? So HIV cannot grow or reproduce on its own.

    01:47 That's the important thing for you to keep in mind first.

    01:50 So HIV has to attach itself to a T helper cell.

    01:55 Remember that's just a type of white cell.

    01:57 So HIV attaches to the cell and fuses with it and takes control of a body's cell.

    02:05 So it attaches to it it fuses with it and it takes control of the cell's DNA.

    02:11 So it takes a cell and turns it against the body that it's in because HIV replicates itself inside the cell and then finally releases more HIV into the blood and it just keeps going on and on and on so it's making copies of itself, but it doesn't exist without a CD4 T helper cell that it can take over and hijack and talk it into creating copies of HIV to be released into the body.

    02:40 So that's even more specific.

    02:41 We've got a picture for you there.

    02:43 But you've got the concept you see it attached.

    02:46 You see it fuses with the cell DNA makes us new RNA and now it starts making copies.

    02:53 This is where antiretroviral treatment really helps a patient.

    02:58 So this is a range of drugs that target different stages in the HIV life cycle.

    03:04 So that's why we're going to break down the different stages understanding the mechanism of action of these drugs is just a simple as recognizing the stages of the HIV life cycle.

    03:14 So if they take these medications correctly and consistently anyone with HIV needs to understand as you all Health Care Providers, but this treatment is only as effective as compliant as they can be with taking the medication correctly and consistently.

    03:31 It's everyday and if they can do that, then it's pretty effective in keeping the HIV viral count low and the immune system healthy.

    03:40 See the less of this virus the number viral load or viral count in my bloodstream the healthier my immune system should be.

    03:49 People with healthy immune systems have fewer symptoms and less risk of developing AIDS.

    03:56 So that's it.

    03:57 That's the goal of antiretroviral treatment or ART.

    04:00 I want to minimize the number of HIV viruses in the bloodstream.

    04:04 My goal is for the patient to get to undetectable.

    04:08 But even if we can't get it all the way down to undetectable we want to get it as low as possible.

    04:14 Now they're one problem with art is there's an issue with drug resistance.

    04:18 Now, there's a higher risk of drug resistance if the patient can't be consistent with the medication.

    04:23 So if they don't take them the way they're prescribed and take them consistently drug resistance can develop.

    04:29 Just we're to like what happens with not exactly the same mechanisms, but we teach the same concepts of people with antibiotics.

    04:36 Hey, please take the full prescription of the medication same thing with art gotta follow the healthcare providers orders or directions for taking the medication.

    04:47 Remember the higher the viral load the more viruses able to replicate and harm the immune system.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture HIV: Life Cycle and Drug Resistance (Nursing) by Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN is from the course Antiviral Medications (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. HIV attaches to a T-helper cell.
    2. HIV fuses to a T-helper cell.
    3. HIV replicates inside of a T-helper cell.
    4. HIV grows on its own.
    5. HIV reproduces on its own.
    1. ...a high risk of drug resistance.
    2. ...a low risk of drug resistance.
    3. ...a high risk of drug dependence.
    4. ...a low risk of drug dependence.

    Author of lecture HIV: Life Cycle and Drug Resistance (Nursing)

     Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

    Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

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