Growth Stages: Infant, Toddler, Preschooler and School-aged Children (Nursing)

by Samantha Rhea, MSN, RN

My Notes
  • Required.
Save Cancel
    Learning Material 2
    • PDF
      Slides Growth and Development Nursing.pdf
    • PDF
      Download Lecture Overview
    Report mistake

    00:01 Now next, we're going to move through the growth stages, but discuss each physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes that that particular age range will experience.

    00:13 And then we're going to talk about the application of nursing.

    00:16 So, let's start with the stage of the infant.

    00:19 This is about if you recall a month to about a year old.

    00:22 Now, physical changes here, we're going to see some variation and some increases in height and weight, and some development of fine and gross motor movements.

    00:32 Now, cognitively, the infant's going to start developing that vision, hearing and touch, and language, and a little bit of memory development.

    00:41 Now, in the psychosocial stages, if you recall, there's going to be some separation of self from others, and also some purposeful smiling.

    00:50 Now, when we're talking about nursing, now, remember that we want to promote trust that very important Erickson's initial stage.

    00:58 We want to be gentle and soothing, minimize stressors, and make sure we facilitate bonding with that parents.

    01:06 And just know what the infancy stage it's important to keep the appearance in the vision of the child, and allow the mother to interpret the infant's behavior.

    01:17 Now, let's move on to the toddler stage.

    01:19 Physically, there's going to be some development, but some refinement of the fine and gross motor movements.

    01:25 Now, cognitively, there's more memory and language development here, and in a psychosocial changes, they're going to start developing that important sense of autonomy and independence.

    01:36 Now, here the interesting thing about the toddler stage is they engage in more parallel play, which really all we're talking about is really the toddler will just play adjacent to each other, but really independently.

    01:49 They may be interested in maybe what their peers doing, but really do they just play independently alongside each other.

    01:57 Now, when we're talking about applying this to nursing, it's important to hear at this toddler stage, we're supporting their development and giving them undivided attention.

    02:06 Now, even though it can be a little bit frustrating, make sure you do your best to encourage autonomy, and expect of course, some frustrated, some maybe exaggerated responses, and of course, that resounding word of, "No".

    02:20 But use kind and firm approach in communication, but give one direction at a time.

    02:26 It's important here to be clear, and be succinct with your directions.

    02:31 Now, it's really important to use play here to prepare for any sort of invasive procedure to help ease the stressors of the child.

    02:39 And be cautious about restricting any movement.

    02:42 And again, don't forget, parents are really important to keep in sight to minimize anxiety, especially if you're going to do any sort of procedure with a child.

    02:53 Now, let's move into that preschooler stage.

    02:56 Now physically, really, growth is ongoing here.

    02:59 It's a little bit slower than before, but we're still increasing that gross chart.

    03:05 Development and refinement of that fine gross motor movements is continuing to develop.

    03:10 And there's a lot of curiosity going under on here.

    03:14 In their understanding is lead to previous experiences that they've seen.

    03:19 Now, increasing social interaction and playing with others is really important here.

    03:24 So, they understand those play norms and those expectations.

    03:30 Now, applying this to nursing, it's important again, to allow for the exploration, support their development, but of course set firm limits.

    03:39 Now, because of their phallic stage here, genitalia assessments, that may actually produce a large amount of anxiety.

    03:45 So make sure, you have their parents close.

    03:48 Now, if they must leave, make sure you let the child know that they will indeed return.

    03:55 Now, support fear through acknowledgement, and let them know, it is okay to be scared and talk through.

    04:01 Use simple logic and reasoning with a child.

    04:06 Now, let's move into the school aged child.

    04:09 There's a lot of new stressors that come along with this age.

    04:12 But physically, there is some really consistent growth and definitely improved coordination.

    04:19 Now, with this improved coordination, there may be more involvement in organized sports or different extracurricular activities, for example.

    04:27 And cognitively, we're making leaps and bounds and we learn a lot of new school related skills, such as reading, math, and language here.

    04:37 Now, at this particular age of the school aged child, there is a lot of psychosocial changes to consider.

    04:44 There's a lot of peer relations and peer pressure to be cognizant of as a provider.

    04:49 Now, the topic of sexuality comes up.

    04:52 And again, there's a lot of stressors that many of us are unaware that this particular age could be experiencing.

    04:59 Now, it's important here to allow participation in care and provide appropriate validation and praise.

    05:06 Now, if we're talking about a younger school aged child, the use of play and games is great to assess and educate.

    05:14 However, know that some children will say that they do understand even maybe they don't.

    05:19 So make sure we assess appropriately here.

    05:22 It is important to allow, to support for fear and allow them to verbalize any pain.

    05:28 Of course, respect their privacy as much as possible.

    05:32 But here's the other thing, is to encourage the child to answer questions.

    05:37 Many times as the provider we want to ask the parents or the caregiver, for example, for information.

    05:42 But as you recall, it's important to allow them to participate in their care and verbalize their feelings.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Growth Stages: Infant, Toddler, Preschooler and School-aged Children (Nursing) by Samantha Rhea, MSN, RN is from the course Nursing Across the Life Span.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Be kind but firm with the child
    2. Give undivided attention to the child
    3. Allow the child to play with the assessment instruments before using them on the child
    4. Give all the instructions at the beginning of the assessment so the child will know what to expect
    5. Ask the parents to step out of the room prior to starting the assessment to allow the patient to have privacy
    1. Increased curiosity
    2. Development of fine and gross motor movements
    3. Learning school-related skills (e.g., reading, math, language)
    4. Language development
    1. "It sounds like your son is engaging in parallel play with the other children. This is normal for this stage of development. I would not expect your child to engage with the other children until he reaches 4–5 years of age."
    2. "I am concerned your child might be on the Autism spectrum. Would you like me to arrange an appointment with a specialist?"
    3. "At 2-years-old your child should be sharing his toys with others. I suggest you encourage your child to take turns with the other children."
    4. "Sometimes children do not want to share their toys and that is okay."

    Author of lecture Growth Stages: Infant, Toddler, Preschooler and School-aged Children (Nursing)

     Samantha Rhea, MSN, RN

    Samantha Rhea, MSN, RN

    Customer reviews

    5,0 of 5 stars
    5 Stars
    4 Stars
    3 Stars
    2 Stars
    1  Star