Giardia: Etiology and Pathology (Pediatric Nursing)

by Paula Ruedebusch

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    00:01 Now, we'll cover Giardia.

    00:03 Giardia is also known as beaver fever and this is a parasitic infection caused by Giardia Lamblia.

    00:09 It's one of the most common, parasitic human diseases worldwide.

    00:13 It causes diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss and its spread via contaminated food and water.

    00:19 It's diagnosed with stool test. And treatment is available.

    00:24 So let's hear about Giardia Lamblia.

    00:26 This is an infection that occurs in many animals, beavers, cows, rodents and sheep.

    00:32 Once they're infected, the parasite is gonna live in their intestines.

    00:35 And it's found in every region of the United States and around the world.

    00:39 It's transmitted by swallowing Giardia, picked up from surfaces including bathroom handles, changing tables, diaper pails, toys that contain feces from an infected person or animal, so wash your hands.

    00:52 You can also get this by drinking water or using ice made from sources where Giardia may live.

    00:58 And this includes improperly treated water from lakes, streams or wells.

    01:02 I always ask my patients where they get their water.

    01:05 Is it from a well? Is it from city water? And whether or not they've been camping or purifying water on hikes.

    01:10 Patients can also get Giardia by swallowing water while swimming where Giardia lives, including lakes, rivers, springs, ponds and streams.

    01:19 You can also get Giardia by eating uncooked food that contains these organisms and having contact with someone who is ill with Giardia.

    01:27 You can get this by traveling to countries where Giardia is common.

    01:31 So, anything that comes in contact with feces from infected humans or animals can be dominated with the parasite.

    01:38 Here are some common causes. You see a gentleman getting water from a stream.

    01:41 It can come out of a tap if it's untreated or poorly treated.

    01:46 Children playing in streams and rivers, and then they touch their hands or eat a meal can transmit Giardia.

    01:51 We commonly see Giardia in animals and dogs who drink the same water.

    01:55 And then also, daycare centers and schools.

    01:58 And remember, anything touched by this parasite will become contaminated.

    02:02 Giardia is a flagellated protozoan that causes enzyme issues and changes in the micro villus and it causes programmed cell death of the epithelial cells in the small intestine.

    02:12 It's going to inhibit enzymes that help break down disaccharide sugars in the intestines.

    02:18 And it's gonna alter the normal flora in the intestines.

    02:21 This altered villi is going to lead to the inability to absorb nutrients and water from the intestine so it'll pass right through resulting in diarrhea.

    02:30 The intestinal permeability increases, and the degree to which malabsorption occurs is highly variable.

    02:37 Here is the process. First at the top, a cyst is ingested by a patient.

    02:42 These trophozoites are gonna hatch and multiply in the small intestine.

    02:47 And then they're going to encyst in the large intestine.

    02:50 Then they will be expelled in the feces and these cysts are gonna contaminate the environment and fomites.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Giardia: Etiology and Pathology (Pediatric Nursing) by Paula Ruedebusch is from the course Infectious Diseases – Pediatric Nursing (Quiz Coming Soon) .

    Author of lecture Giardia: Etiology and Pathology (Pediatric Nursing)

     Paula Ruedebusch

    Paula Ruedebusch

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