Now, we'll cover Giardia.
Giardia is also known as beaver fever and this is a parasitic infection caused by Giardia Lamblia.
It's one of the most common, parasitic human diseases worldwide.
It causes diarrhea, abdominal pain and weight loss and its spread via contaminated food and water.
It's diagnosed with stool test. And treatment is available.
So let's hear about Giardia Lamblia.
This is an infection that occurs in many animals, beavers, cows, rodents and sheep.
Once they're infected, the parasite is gonna live in their intestines.
And it's found in every region of the United States and around the world.
It's transmitted by swallowing Giardia, picked up from surfaces including bathroom handles,
changing tables, diaper pails, toys that contain feces
from an infected person or animal, so wash your hands.
You can also get this by drinking water or using ice made from sources where Giardia may live.
And this includes improperly treated water from lakes, streams or wells.
I always ask my patients where they get their water.
Is it from a well? Is it from city water?
And whether or not they've been camping or purifying water on hikes.
Patients can also get Giardia by swallowing water while swimming where Giardia lives,
including lakes, rivers, springs, ponds and streams.
You can also get Giardia by eating uncooked food that contains these organisms
and having contact with someone who is ill with Giardia.
You can get this by traveling to countries where Giardia is common.
So, anything that comes in contact with feces from infected humans or animals can be dominated with the parasite.
Here are some common causes. You see a gentleman getting water from a stream.
It can come out of a tap if it's untreated or poorly treated.
Children playing in streams and rivers, and then they touch their hands or eat a meal can transmit Giardia.
We commonly see Giardia in animals and dogs who drink the same water.
And then also, daycare centers and schools.
And remember, anything touched by this parasite will become contaminated.
Giardia is a flagellated protozoan that causes enzyme issues
and changes in the micro villus and it causes programmed cell death of the epithelial cells in the small intestine.
It's going to inhibit enzymes that help break down disaccharide sugars in the intestines.
And it's gonna alter the normal flora in the intestines.
This altered villi is going to lead to the inability to absorb nutrients and water from the intestine
so it'll pass right through resulting in diarrhea.
The intestinal permeability increases, and the degree to which malabsorption occurs is highly variable.
Here is the process. First at the top, a cyst is ingested by a patient.
These trophozoites are gonna hatch and multiply in the small intestine.
And then they're going to encyst in the large intestine.
Then they will be expelled in the feces and these cysts are gonna contaminate the environment and fomites.