So now the factor of to look at is Gender.
So gender is the range of characteristics
pertaining to and differentiating between
and from masculinity and femininity.
So we’ve sort – I don’t
want to say complicated
but we made this official
statement about gender.
But I think a lot of us assume or
think we know the basics of gender.
Whether you are a male or a female.
As we have seen in our discussion today
thats actually a little bit
more convo a little bit on that.
So considerations for determining
gender of an individual will include
the easy thing I would
say is biological factors.
That the sex of somebody was born.
And I want to talk about genetic information.
So chromosomes that determine sex will either
be XX which is female or XY which is male.
And that genotype will tell you
you'regoing to be a male or a female.
Or genetic speaking in terms
if you’re determining whether
somebody who is a male or a female
solely on biological factors
that would be predetermined.
We also have another third category
called intersex, where you can have
various combinations of W expressing
and you can have XXXY.
and so it becomes a little bit more complicated.
And the water is a little bit muddy and it’s not a
clear indication of what’s your biological sex is.
Then we have other factors that contribute to gender.
We have Identity.
What is the gender that is
actually you identify with?
You might have these sex chromosomes for being male
that you seemed to identify more with females.
You still have a penis, you still look like
a male, but you identify with females.
And then there is, how you been
able to express you self?
What is the gender you express
to the outside world?
Identity might be considered internal
whereas expression is external.
Collectively, this will allow you to
determine what is your overall gender?
Okay, let’s take a look of example
of how this can differentiate.
Let’s say that you’re in this examples starting off
as biologically being determine as male.
You determined as male, you identify
yourself as being the male.
And you express yourself as being male.
So that being called a Cis-gender.
And that you are following the formation
that was initiated through your genetics
through your gene expression.
Biologically speaking you are male.
Now, there is another option,
what if you identify with being a female?
You might still actually express yourself
as male going across, so we are going
male biologically over the being
a female in terms of identity.
but still expressing yourself as male.
Biologically you’re a male. You might
being identified with being a female.
But you still around others
express yourself as male.
The other option is biologically male identify
with females and you express yourself as female.
So this would be considered transgender.
Okay, so I think the recent example
that you might be aware of is
the US Olympic athlete, Bruce Jenner.
Recently, he said that he his
whole life felt like he was a woman
but kind of hid it and express to himself
to the outside world as a male,as Bruce Jenner.
Who got married three times and had about 14 kids.
Was Cis-gendered meaning biologically
male, identified as female
but expressed as male.
He recently came out saying
"I am transgendered."
And so, now he has changed as
outwardly expression of his
gender to being female.
So again, biologically he has
the male sex chromosome.
but then he identifies
and expresses as a female.
We also have another term
And this is a, referred to as a
non-binary when an individual is not
exclusively masculine or feminine.
So it’s also, it’s we call it a catch-all
because it’s a category that kind of
captures everything words
not so clear.
So that’s can include individuals
who have overlap of their gender identity.
People who have no gender.
They feel like that they are androgynous.
They don’t relate or feel like they’re either or.
One of those who move between genders.
Okay, so again, that term out
that should be familiar with.
Now, this is all slightly different
than sexual orientation.
'Cause this refers to a person’s sense
of identity based on attractions,
related behaviors, and membership in a
community of others who share those attractions.
Okay, so again, a little more complicated.
And there’s two certain
components we need to consider.
Psychological and Behavioral.
So psychologically speaking,
who are you attracted to?
That would represent erotic desires versus
the behavioral component you are acting that out.
Who you actually having sex with?
What is the sex of your partner?
So, you might be a male.
You might really be attracted to males
but you still only have sex with females.
Okay? And there’s a lot of
different combinations. You might
be attracted to males but have
sex with females, maybe and males. Okay.
So let’s look some of those
combinations. We have Heterosexuality
where you are attracted and have
sex with the opposite partner.
I think that’s probably the bulk of the population
your a male. You have sex with the female.
Or you’re a female, you have sex with the male.
Then we have Bisexuality.
where you’re attracted to and
has sex with either gender.
So it’s a double, double. Male having
sex with the either male or female.
Homosexuality is when you are attracted
doing sex with the same gender.
And then, Asexuality is just lack
of sexual attraction to anyone.
And this is not and exhausted unless
you can have a lot of different variations
of what we’re talking about here.
But I think this is the broad obvious bins that
identify allows to understand sexual orientation.
Social construction of gender refers
to the social norms, expectations
and roles assigned to each gender
many times even before they are born.
So we all have an idea of what
we think, you know male is.
And if I were to ask you to drop,
you ask a young person to draw
what they think a male is and a female is.
All that you can see, all the cultural norms
and the stereotypes that we have are expressed.
And they’ll draw a boy being big maybe
having muscles, wearing a blue shirt,
maybe being a construction
man, fireman, policeman.
Whereas, a girl might have nice long hair and all these, all
the different characters cause we kind of reflected there.
So it’s funny that those same roles
will actually be layered on to
a child before they were even born.
So as soon as maybe we find out that
it is a boy, we paint the room blue.
We get on the blue pajamas and we assume
certain things prior to that being born.
So the gender roles can shape
the expectations of proper behavior,
attitudes activities by their gender.
And this is a very common thing that
people do. And it’s not to be negative.
It’s not that people trying to be hurtful.
This is just almost, almost the reflex.
Society tends to predefine
the characteristic of each gender
with man being strong, dominant, aggressive
and woman being a little bit
more submissive, emotional and soft.
Are these appropriate? Are they
accurate? I’m not want to say
but they’re definitely there,
they definitely exist.
So let’s take a look at when some
of these kind of our challenge.
So these predefinitions are
propagated by media and society,
and disapproved upon when they’re broken.
So say for example, we have the image
here of a man sitting and knitting.
Try that as an experiment this
one day if you once sit on a bus
and starting knitting as a man.
What happens? People might kind a
look at you a little bit funny saying,
“Well, why is this guy knitting?”
Or if you have female doing something that’s
normally attributed to a task that a
male does, shoveling, doing construction.
The predefinitions that we have, when they get
challenged, a lot of time they get disapprove upon.
Societal views are more
biased towards men than women.
So men shouldn’t have female roles but it’s
okay for a female to have some more male roles.
You don’t want a man to be more feminine
but it’s okay for a woman a little more masculine.
It means, she’s being strong.
She’s being more like a man
a positive view or as a man trying to be like
a woman as a look upon as being slightly weaker.
So men’s roles are perceived
as having more value.
The example that we have here
is home-maker versus professional.
So being married, having a wife,
I appreciate all that she has to do.
There’s a lot to do.
If you’re a home-maker
versus a man who’s traditionally
whose role was you got and work.
You go outside have a fresh in and make money
to support and take care of our family.
And as a female as the mother, my job is
to cook dinner or clean the house,
and take care and raise the kids.
That’s a huge basket of
things to take care of to.
So men’s roles are perceived as
have more value. Well, what do you do?
You take care of the house.
I’m out there working.
I’m making the money to
support us as supposed to.
Well I’m actually raising our children and making
sure that you have a home that you can come to.
So society has placed us this polarity
and that actual roles that we have.
Society also assigns unequal value to
jobs and education based on genders.
We can have the same person in terms
of qualifications applying to a job,
one male one female.
And the men will get paid higher for the
exact same job with the same qualifications.
And if he’s at school, he might
be considered being really smart.
Now, look at the women.
She’s gonna get less relative pay
and have less responsibility at work.
And at school she will be
considered really hard working.
So success at school from men equals,
he’s really intelligent and he is smart.
Whereas for a women, it means
that she worked really hard.
Exact same scenario, why is
there two different outcomes.
So there’s a landmark experiment or research
that was done and there was a researcher.
She was publishing her work.
Actually, sort of is other than around
He was publishing his work and
receive a lot of honoraries saying
these are great studies so well done, very
intelligent as these are ground breaking studies.
And this is when he underwent
the realization that he was actually
female and transgender.
And went through that procedure.
And is now presented as a
female continued being a scientist.
And was presenting a lot of people
discounted the quality [inaudible 0:10:48.2]
of her work persist the own
version of herself which was a male
publishing the same type of information.
So there is a socially driven difference in
biological and psychological difference in health
based on how we interpret individuals.
Let’s take a look at something called Gender Segregation.
And this is the separation of people
according to social constructs of gender.
Highlighted example here certain
parts of the world where
there is a clear segregation
between men and women.
And they say, men you’re over here.
Females you’re over here.
You don’t share bathrooms.
You don’t sit in the bus together.
Now this is a generalization. We look at
this McDonald. And we have the two different lines,
one for males one for females.
We can have segregation based on gender in terms
of saying at organizations or institutions.
A lot of churches say, no gays allowed
and they’re quite vocal about it.
Restaurants say we do not serve gays.
That segregation is quite apparent and clear.
It’s been pretty dramatic. Its improving
but still it definitely still exist
in North America and around the world.