Gender – Demographic Structure of Society (PSY, SOC)

by Tarry Ahuja, PhD

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    00:00 So now the factor of to look at is Gender.

    00:03 So gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between and from masculinity and femininity.

    00:11 So we’ve sort – I don’t want to say complicated but we made this official statement about gender.

    00:16 But I think a lot of us assume or think we know the basics of gender.

    00:20 Whether you are a male or a female. As we have seen in our discussion today thats actually a little bit more convoluted than that.

    00:26 So considerations for determining gender of an individual will include the easy thing I would say is biological factors.

    00:34 That the sex of somebody was born. And I want to talk about genetic information.

    00:37 So chromosomes that determine sex will either be XX which is female or XY which is male.

    00:44 And that genotype will tell you you'regoing to be a male or a female.

    00:49 Or genetic speaking in terms if you’re determining whether somebody who is a male or a female solely on biological factors that would be predetermined.

    00:57 We also have another third category called intersex, where you can have various combinations of W expressing and you can have XXXY.

    01:08 and so it becomes a little bit more complicated.

    01:10 And the water is a little bit muddy and it’s not a clear indication of what’s your biological sex is.

    01:17 Then we have other factors that contribute to gender.

    01:21 We have Identity.

    01:22 What is the gender that is actually you identify with? You might have these sex chromosomes for being male that you seemed to identify more with females.

    01:31 You still have a penis, you still look like a male, but you identify with females.

    01:38 And then there is, how you been able to express you self? What is the gender you express to the outside world? Identity might be considered internal whereas expression is external.

    01:48 Collectively, this will allow you to determine what is your overall gender? Okay, let’s take a look of example of how this can differentiate.

    01:59 Let’s say that you’re in this examples starting off as biologically being determine as male.

    02:04 You determined as male, you identify yourself as being the male.

    02:09 And you express yourself as being male.

    02:12 So that being called a Cis-gender.

    02:14 And that you are following the formation that was initiated through your genetics through your gene expression.

    02:21 Biologically speaking you are male.

    02:24 Now, there is another option, what if you identify with being a female? You might still actually express yourself as male going across, so we are going male biologically over the being a female in terms of identity.

    02:38 but still expressing yourself as male.

    02:40 Biologically you’re a male. You might being identified with being a female.

    02:45 But you still around others express yourself as male.

    02:49 The other option is biologically male identify with females and you express yourself as female.

    02:55 So this would be considered transgender.

    02:57 Okay, so I think the recent example that you might be aware of is the US Olympic athlete, Bruce Jenner.

    03:05 Recently, he said that he his whole life felt like he was a woman but kind of hid it and express to himself to the outside world as a male,as Bruce Jenner.

    03:17 Who got married three times and had about 14 kids.

    03:20 He recently came out saying "I am transgendered." And so, now he has changed as outwardly expression of his gender to being female.

    03:32 Now Bruce Jenner is referred to as Caitlyn Jenner. It is important that when someone expresses themselves as a certain gender you use the correct pronouns and in this example, Caitlyn Jenner should now be correctly referred to as she.

    03:44 So again, biologically he has the male sex chromosome.

    03:50 but then he identifies and expresses as a female.

    03:55 We also have another term called Genderqueer.

    03:58 And this is a, referred to as a non-binary when an individual is not exclusively masculine or feminine.

    04:04 So it’s also, it’s we call it a catch-all because it’s a category that kind of captures everything words not so clear.

    04:11 So that’s can include individuals who have overlap of their gender identity.

    04:15 People who have no gender. They feel like that they are androgynous.

    04:17 They don’t relate or feel like they’re either or. One of those who move between genders.

    04:22 Okay, so again, that term out that should be familiar with.

    04:25 Now, this is all slightly different than sexual orientation.

    04:30 'Cause this refers to a person’s sense of identity based on attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions.

    04:38 Okay, so again, a little more complicated.

    04:41 And there’s two certain components we need to consider.

    04:44 Psychological and Behavioral.

    04:46 So psychologically speaking, who are you attracted to? That would represent erotic desires versus the behavioral component you are acting that out.

    04:56 Who you actually having sex with? What is the sex of your partner? So, you might be a male. You might really be attracted to males but you still only have sex with females.

    05:09 Okay? And there’s a lot of different combinations. You might be attracted to males but have sex with females, maybe and males. Okay.

    05:18 So let’s look some of those combinations. We have Heterosexuality where you are attracted and have sex with the opposite partner.

    05:24 I think that’s probably the bulk of the population your a male. You have sex with the female.

    05:28 Or you’re a female, you have sex with the male.

    05:30 Then we have Bisexuality.

    05:32 where you’re attracted to and has sex with either gender.

    05:35 So it’s a double, double. Male having sex with the either male or female.

    05:39 Homosexuality is when you are attracted doing sex with the same gender.

    05:43 And then, Asexuality is just lack of sexual attraction to anyone.

    05:47 And this is not and exhausted unless you can have a lot of different variations of what we’re talking about here.

    05:52 But I think this is the broad obvious bins that identify allows to understand sexual orientation.

    06:00 Social construction of gender refers to the social norms, expectations and roles assigned to each gender many times even before they are born.

    06:09 So we all have an idea of what we think, you know male is.

    06:14 And if I were to ask you to drop, you ask a young person to draw what they think a male is and a female is.

    06:21 All that you can see, all the cultural norms and the stereotypes that we have are expressed.

    06:27 And they’ll draw a boy being big maybe having muscles, wearing a blue shirt, maybe being a construction man, fireman, policeman.

    06:37 Whereas, a girl might have nice long hair and all these, all the different characters cause we kind of reflected there.

    06:43 So it’s funny that those same roles will actually be layered on to a child before they were even born.

    06:51 So as soon as maybe we find out that it is a boy, we paint the room blue.

    06:54 We get on the blue pajamas and we assume certain things prior to that being born.

    07:01 So the gender roles can shape the expectations of proper behavior, attitudes activities by their gender.

    07:06 And this is a very common thing that people do. And it’s not to be negative.

    07:11 It’s not that people trying to be hurtful. This is just almost, almost the reflex.

    07:16 Society tends to predefine the characteristic of each gender with man being strong, dominant, aggressive and woman being a little bit more submissive, emotional and soft.

    07:26 Are these appropriate? Are they accurate? I’m not want to say but they’re definitely there, they definitely exist.

    07:34 So let’s take a look at when some of these kind of our challenge.

    07:39 So these predefinitions are propagated by media and society, and disapproved upon when they’re broken.

    07:44 So say for example, we have the image here of a man sitting and knitting.

    07:53 Try that as an experiment this one day if you once sit on a bus and starting knitting as a man.

    07:57 What happens? People might kind a look at you a little bit funny saying, “Well, why is this guy knitting?” Or if you have female doing something that’s normally attributed to a task that a male does, shoveling, doing construction.

    08:12 The predefinitions that we have, when they get challenged, a lot of time they get disapprove upon.

    08:20 Societal views are more biased towards men than women.

    08:23 So men shouldn’t have female roles but it’s okay for a female to have some more male roles.

    08:27 You don’t want a man to be more feminine but it’s okay for a woman a little more masculine.

    08:32 It means, she’s being strong. She’s being more like a man a positive view or as a man trying to be like a woman as a look upon as being slightly weaker.

    08:44 So men’s roles are perceived as having more value.

    08:47 The example that we have here is home-maker versus professional.

    08:50 So being married, having a wife, I appreciate all that she has to do.

    08:55 There’s a lot to do. If you’re a home-maker versus a man who’s traditionally whose role was you got and work.

    09:04 You go outside have a fresh in and make money to support and take care of our family.

    09:10 And as a female as the mother, my job is to cook dinner or clean the house, and take care and raise the kids.

    09:16 That’s a huge basket of things to take care of to.

    09:18 So men’s roles are perceived as have more value. Well, what do you do? You take care of the house. I’m out there working.

    09:24 I’m making the money to support us as supposed to.

    09:26 Well I’m actually raising our children and making sure that you have a home that you can come to.

    09:30 So society has placed us this polarity and that actual roles that we have.

    09:39 Society also assigns unequal value to jobs and education based on genders.

    09:44 We can have the same person in terms of qualifications applying to a job, one male one female.

    09:50 And the men will get paid higher for the exact same job with the same qualifications.

    09:56 And if he’s at school, he might be considered being really smart.

    09:59 Now, look at the women. She’s gonna get less relative pay and have less responsibility at work.

    10:04 And at school she will be considered really hard working.

    10:07 So success at school from men equals, he’s really intelligent and he is smart.

    10:11 Whereas for a women, it means that she worked really hard.

    10:14 Exact same scenario, why is there two different outcomes.

    10:18 So there’s a landmark experiment or research that was done and there was a researcher.

    10:26 She was publishing her work. Actually, sort of is other than around He was publishing his work and receive a lot of honoraries saying these are great studies so well done, very intelligent as these are ground breaking studies.

    10:39 And this is when he underwent the realization that he was actually female and transgender. And went through that procedure.

    10:46 And is now presented as a female continued being a scientist.

    10:49 And was presenting a lot of people discounted the quality and rigor of her work persist the own version of herself which was a male publishing the same type of information.

    11:01 So there is a socially driven difference in biological and psychological difference in health based on how we interpret individuals.

    11:14 Let’s take a look at something called Gender Segregation.

    11:18 And this is the separation of people according to social constructs of gender.

    11:23 Highlighted example here certain parts of the world where there is a clear segregation between men and women.

    11:30 And they say, men you’re over here. Females you’re over here.

    11:34 You don’t share bathrooms. You don’t sit in the bus together.

    11:36 Now this is a generalization. We look at this McDonald. And we have the two different lines, one for males one for females.

    11:44 We can have segregation based on gender in terms of saying at organizations or institutions.

    11:51 A lot of churches say, no gays allowed and they’re quite vocal about it.

    11:54 Restaurants say we do not serve gays.

    11:56 That segregation is quite apparent and clear.

    12:00 It’s been pretty dramatic. Its improving but still it definitely still exist in North America and around the world.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Gender – Demographic Structure of Society (PSY, SOC) by Tarry Ahuja, PhD is from the course Demographic Characteristics and Processes.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Gender
    2. Age
    3. Sex
    4. Sex category
    5. Sex role
    1. Expression and identity
    2. Biological factors, genetics, and identity
    3. Biological factors, social factors, expression, and identity
    4. Biological factors, expression, and preference
    5. Expression, culture, and identity
    1. Biologically male, identified as male, and expressed as male
    2. Biologically male, identified as female, and expressed as female
    3. Biologically male, identified as male, and expressed as female
    4. Biologically female, identified as male, and expressed as female
    5. Biologically female, identified as female, and expressed as male
    1. Altering their expression of gender
    2. Altering their biological orientation of gender
    3. Altering their identity of gender
    4. Altering their declaration of gender
    5. Altering their social orientation of gender
    1. Genderqueer
    2. Transgender
    3. Cis-gender
    4. Gender binary
    5. Genderfluid
    1. Sexual orientation
    2. Gender
    3. Sex role
    4. Sex choice
    5. Sex category

    Author of lecture Gender – Demographic Structure of Society (PSY, SOC)

     Tarry Ahuja, PhD

    Tarry Ahuja, PhD

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