Let’s get into self-presentation
and interacting with others.
How is it that you present yourself?
when you’re in front of others.
And how do others present themselves to you?
So we’re going to get sort of by looking at
some of the ways that we actually detect emotion.
And this is something that you do even when
you’re not thinking about your projecting yourself
and the emotions that you’re portraying
when you interact with somebody.
Even when you’re not verbally interacting
with them, you’re actually letting off emotion.
So we’re going to start up by looking
at the differences between men and women,
gender roles and gender differences.
But I want to highlight one point first
before we dive in to this. And that
it’s not that women are actually
more emotional than men
but they tend to be a little bit more
expressive and better at detecting emotion.
So I think, there's a common misconception
that women are very emotional.
I think a lot of guys we agree that they
tend to express their emotion more than us.
We tend to be a little bit cold and dead inside.
Where women tend express themselves.
So some other points are we going to talk about
here or highlighting some of those differences.
First, of women tend to be a little bit more
proficient at reading emotional cues.
Guys who have a lady friend, or wife
or sister, or mother, you might know
Times where they have said things to you
like, “Is there something wrong?”
And you’re like “No, why?”
They are like, “I can see it in your face.
Or the way you’re looking at me or the way
you’re standing, something’s wrong.”
And you’re like “Is there?
I’m not sure maybe there is.”
So, they’re really good at reading those
emotional cues. Where a lot of times,
gents, we might not pick up
on some of those cues.
Women have a greater sensitivity
to non-verbal cues.
This is just straight up looks or
in your stance. And we’ll breakdown
what non-verbal means in just a moment. But they’re
really really good at that detecting that.
They also have a greater emotional literacy
and better at expressing their emotions.
What I mean by literacy is,
guys, we might have in our mind
in terms of how we communicate
4, 5 broad been of how we describe emotion.
Kind of think cave man ways.
And you’re like mad, happy, sad.
Whereas, women will further categorize
and know have various types of happiness,
and various type of sadness, and
various types of expressing love.
So that sort of difference does not necessarily
mean we are not experiencing those emotions.
We just are not the greatest at
expressing that emotion.
Now, not surprising, but anger seems to be one
of those emotions that actually gets tied to men.
When you look at, some kind of need
experiments that look at
somebody who’s really not gender specific,
some images of folks that are not gender specific.
They don’t overtly look like a female or male.
So there is kind of in-between.
And they – this images are shown to
somebody. And if I show them to you,
and you really – again, you couldn’t
really tell whether he's a guy or a girl.
And this face was emotionless.
You would really have a lot of trouble.
If I said, “You going to pick one,
male or female, you would have trouble.
And know, the results show
that it’s almost 50/50.
So the people are arbitrarily saying, “I think
that’s a girl or I think that’s a guy.”
Now, if you get that androgynous
person to make an expression,
and that expression is anger.
So making an angry face,
more times than not
The majority of individuals looking at
those images will say that that’s a male.
Even though, previously they were unable
to detect whether it’s male or female,
that look of anger actually leads us
to believe that it is a male.
So we can say, looking at that evidence that anger
seems to be considered a masculine emotion
Or at least correlated to a male.
Empathy, which is when you feel sorrow
and compassion for somebody else
seems to be equally expressed between
gender… shown in gender,
experienced in gender but it’s
expressed higher in the women.
Again, I think if you’re a male or
female you could probably relate to that.
And you think of say somebody who’s
hurt or something that’s cute.
I’m thinking kittens, or I’m thinking
an old man who’s tripped and fallen.
It’s not that guys we don’t feel bad for
the old man who’s fallen, or the kittens
and all that kind of stuff.
But we might not say, “Oh look
at the cute little kittens.”
or you going to say, “Oh my
God that poor guy fell.”
Would be right there
ready to help as well.
but women would express that
empathy that they’re feeling.
Women also experience emotion
more deeply, have more recall.
And experimentally, we’ve shown
that they have more brain activation.
Again, let’s not relate this to
they’re experiencing more emotion
it’s just different characteristics.
And we all mean by deeply is that it
really impacts them, it stays with them.
and it might resonate a little bit longer.
Think of romantic movies or emotional
books, paintings even emotional interactions.
It sits with women; it tends to
generally speaking a little bit longer.
And for male they experience the same
emotion but they quickly kind of --
I don’t want to say forget, but they move on
into a newer emotion and a different interaction.
Women also tend to remember the emotion
experience a little bit longer.
And this is shown with that brain activation,
in which is indirect evidence showing that,
if you usually what we say is that
there's a greater brain activation
that means greater processing and maybe
greater storage or in term of memory.
Now, let’s look at – we look at gender.
Let’s take a look at what culture does
in terms of expression and types of emotion.
So we know that culturally speaking, there's
variation between the meaning of emotional gestures.
So if you travel the globe and
you were able to only use your hands,
And use some of that symbology to say,
“Hey, now what do you think?”
The one that’s comes up a lot is thumbs up.
So that’s a fairly [inaudible 0:05:57.7]
it was almost anywhere you go.
If you say “right on”, that
means good job or I like it.
It’s considered basically a positive thing.
As opposed to say the middle finger, I’m not
going to do it to you right now in camera but
if you read between the lines you see
them doing something that might offend you.
It might be considered a derogatory or
negative remark and lot of parts of the world.
But then other parts of the
world it means nothing.
It has no meaning other than the fact
that it’s one of the fingers on your hand.
So here’s a great example of something
that’s been culturally appointed
in terms of having a meaning
Why that finger? Why that orientation?
Why is that mean something?
Whereas in other parts of the world it’s
literary the meaning and that it’s a finger.
So really really interesting to kind
of look at that across cultures.
Another thing in terms of alignment is
that we know that certain facial expressions
are actually universal across cultures.
So, if you’re making a smiling face,
it’s fairly consistent around the world
that a smiling face means I’m happy
or I’m smiling at you. Like hello.
It’s a nice gesture. And this doesn’t
mean, I’m going to kick your ass
or I’m very upset with you.
It’s more along the lines of,
“Hi, how are you? It’s nice to see you.
And you’re being happy and nice.
So this is reinforced with sort
of two populations that you look at.
You have babies and you have blind people.
So let’s look at babies first.
Babies really don’t know anything
other than what we teach them.
If you look at a baby early on before
they’ve been inundated and exposed
with learned behaviors and learned
emotions things that we teach them
they innately know smiles, crying --
smiling and gurgling
And doing those happy things equal
I’m content, and wailing, and crying,
and screaming mean I’m hungry, I have a dirty
diaper or this situation is not ideal for me.
So that’s really consistent.
Again, because babies who really
have no learned emotion are telling us
thus that tells us that, that’s
really consistent and innate.
Blind individuals. Now, they
can't really see anything.
So they have troubles, they would have trouble
learning that this equals me being happy.
That was kind of creepy or this
means I’m very upset.
They wouldn’t see that. They just do it.
So how does a blind individual know that
when their guide dog take them
to their appropriate place, and they’re
very happy. They are like “good dog”
They can't see really what they’re
doing other than they do it.
So two pieces of evidence that kind of support
the fact that certain facial expressions
are universal across cultures.
Now, opposing to the point that
we just said earlier,
is that we have something that
called emotional expressivity.
Which is you expressing emotions that can
actually vary across certain cultures.
In the example, I was going to present
here is east versus west.
In the west, we are very expressive
with our emotion.
And you do a lot of hugging, a lot high
fiving or very loud, a lot of kissing.
And then you get a certain eastern or Asian
culture where you’re much more subdued.
And you’re not overtly screaming
like “Yes, Amazing!”
Instead they’re like, “This is
very nice, thank you”.
And you go to your room and you maybe
show emotional but differently there.
But you’re not overt with your expressivity
in terms of how you’re actually
expressing that to the outside world.