Electron Configuration and Magnetism

by Jared Rovny

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    00:01 Finally one last topic in the electron configuration.

    00:04 We're going to talk briefly about what happens to non-magnetic materials that don't have sort of intrinsic magnetism.

    00:11 And how they respond to magnetic fields.

    00:14 There's two kinds of behavior you can have for a non-magnetic material.

    00:18 First of all it could be repelled by a magnetic field if it's a non-magnetic material.

    00:23 We call these materials "Diamagnetic." And usually in a diamagnetic material, all the electrons in that material are paired.

    00:30 So you don't have any sort of free electrons or these open energy levels are for your electrons.

    00:36 And those completely paired energy levels will respond to a magnetic field by repulsion.

    00:43 And we certainly not going to get into of why this is or any of the internal dynamics.

    00:47 So the two things you need to know are for the diamagnetism, you have a repelling effect away from the magnetic field.

    00:53 And secondly that this is typically the case for the electrons in a diamagnetic material all being paired.

    01:00 On the other hand, you can have exactly the opposite behavior which is a paramagnetic material.

    01:05 A paramagnetic material is not magnetic in itself.

    01:08 But if you put it in a presence of a magnetic field, it will be slightly attractive, attracted to that magnetic field.

    01:15 We say that this repulsion effect and this attraction effect for non-magnetic materials is an induced effect, an induced repulsion or attraction.

    01:24 Because rather than this repulsion or attraction coming from two magnetic fields, coming together, this experience, this effect, this force towards or away is induced effect.

    01:35 Because again these materials aren't intrinsically magnetic in themselves.

    01:39 So again for the paramagnetic materials we have these two properties that are direct opposite for the diamagnetic.

    01:45 They are slightly attracted to a magnetic field.

    01:48 And there is typically some sort of an unpaired electron in that paramagnetic material which allows it to be attracted to the magnetic field.

    01:56 And again we're not going to go into how exactly that electrons is moving these paired electrons in the material and why it's causing this.

    02:03 But you should certainly memorize here the distinction between diamagnetic and paramagnetic.

    02:08 That the diamagnetic is repelled.

    02:10 That there is usually paired electrons.

    02:12 Now the paramagnetic is usually slightly attracted.

    02:15 And that they are usually unpaired electrons in that material.

    02:18 Going off this definition we have one last thing to say, which is that don't forget in light of this conversation, what we just said about the noble gases.

    02:27 So remember the noble gases in the far right of the periodic table always have those outer shells completely filled.

    02:33 And so they don't ever have any unpaired electrons in their outer orbitals.

    02:37 So for these noble gases, because they don't have any unpaired electrons in those outer orbitals, they don't really want to bond or react with anything.

    02:45 And so usually the noble gases your neons and your argons, are usually not interacting with or binding with anything.

    02:51 They're usually found in nature just as free floating gases.

    02:54 Because again they don't want to bind with anything.

    02:56 They don't want to pair with anything.

    02:57 Because all the electrons in their outer orbital are already filled, there are sort of like card shells or atoms.

    03:03 And so again we might have this conversation about diamagnetism and paramagnetism and how it depends whether you have paired or unpaired electrons.

    03:11 Just always remember to keep in mind that the noble gases always have full orbitals.

    03:15 And therefore their electrons are always paired.

    03:18 So this summarizes and wraps up our second discussion of the electronic structure.

    03:22 We already introduced the Bohr atom in the prior lecture.

    03:26 And now we've discussed some of the behavior of the different shapes of the electrons that they can take in a given atom.

    03:32 Thanks for listening.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Electron Configuration and Magnetism by Jared Rovny is from the course Electronic Structure.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. The material is very slightly repelled.
    2. The material is strongly repelled.
    3. The material is very slightly attracted.
    4. The material is very strongly attracted.
    5. Nothing occurs.
    1. Paramagnetic materials are intrinsically magnetic objects.
    2. Paramagnetic materials are attracted by magnetic fields.
    3. Paramagnetic materials have unpaired electrons in their orbitals.
    4. Paramagnetic materials are not magnetic by themselves, but they can become magnetic when in contact with a magnetic field.
    5. Lithium with the electron configuration notation of [He]2s¹ is a paramagnetic material.
    1. 3p⁶
    2. 1s¹
    3. 2f²
    4. 3d¹
    5. 2s⁵

    Author of lecture Electron Configuration and Magnetism

     Jared Rovny

    Jared Rovny

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