Welcome to our video on diabetic medications.
Let's get started with a question.
So, after we read the question, I'm
going to want you to pause the video
and write your answer before you look
at the rest of the presentation.
Okay, which type of diabetic
patient cannot receive
most of the oral anti-diabetic
medications, and why?
The answer is type 1 diabetic patients.
They don't benefit from most of
the anti-diabetic medications
because the beta cells of their
pancreas have been destroyed.
The mechanism of action of most of
these oral anti-diabetic medications
is to stimulate insulin release
from the pancreas.
Or remember, if you're a type 1
patient, your pancreas is dead.
Not just mostly dead, as they say, it's dead.
So, the damaged pancreas of a type 1 patient is
not able to accommodate these oral medications.
Now, when we're addressing
we're looking at drugs that are against diabetes,
so they're going to help us lower blood sugar.
There's 2 major groups.
Oral drugs, which I love the graphic that they put
here for you, and non-insulin injectable drugs.
These are drugs that we use to treat
diabetes, but they can't be swallowed.
They have to be injected and they're not insulin.
Most of the drugs that we'll discuss
fall into the oral category,
but there's a couple that we'll talk
about in the injectable category.
Now, there are 7 families of oral anti-diabetic
medications that we're going to go over.
So these drugs are taken by mouth.
There's the biguanides, the second generation
sulfonylureas, the meglitinides --
we call those the glinides,
the thiazolidinediones --
we just call them glitazones, the
the DPP-4 inhibitors, and the dopamine agonist.
So, now here's a study tip.
Mark this slide in your
notes in your presentation.
Because it has 7 of the major classes
and categories of oral medications
that we use for type 2 diabetics, I
want you to use this as a reference.
Go back to this slide to quiz yourself.
That's the most effective
way to check your learning.
Just randomly pick a number, put your finger on it,
or have somebody in your family
pick a number between 1 and 7,
and then go down the lists of things that
you know about each drug as they call it.
So, ask your roommate to pick a number.
If they pick number 3, then share
what you know about the glinides,
why we use them, and what some
of the adverse effects are.
The more you quiz yourself over and over,
that spaced repetition will help you
recall and retain that information.
Now, there's one more group.
They're the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2s,
which is why we call them the SGLT-2 inhibitors.
This is another group of oral
but this is what's really cool about this.
We can use it with type 2 diabetics,
but it also may be helpful for type 1.
This is news.
They're doing clinical studies now, but it's
really a cool development for type 1 diabetics.
Now, it does not replace insulin,
but it may help them be more effective
with their insulin, so stayed tuned.
We'll see what the research shows, but this
1 group, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2s
might have some really incredible clinical
applications for type 1 diabetics.
And it is the only one of the
oral medications that right now,
looking promising to deal with type 1 diabetics.