Now we'll cover candidiasis. This is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida. In the mouth,
this is thrush and in the vagina this is a yeast infection. This rarely becomes invasive but it
can become disseminated and if this happens the patient has a poor prognosis. So the etiology.
Descriptions of oral thrush go all the way back to the time of Hippocrates. Vulva vaginal
candidiasis was first described in 1849 and the rates of candidiasis increased after the advent
of antibiotics following World War II. Then they declined after we developed antifungals
including nystatin in the 1950s. The genus Candida has about 150 different species but only a
few will infect humans and Candida albicans is the most significant. So, Candida yeast is a part
of our normal flora. We have this yeast on us everywhere; in our mouths, in our intestine,
on our skin, and in the vagina. Their growth is regulated by the immune system and they
compete with other microorganisms such as neighboring bacteria. Candida require moisture
to grow and yeast infections are classified as oral, cutaneous, systemic, or even iatrogenic
which is when patients get these after antibiotic use. There are some risk factors for yeast
infections including HIV and AIDS, mononucleosis, patients receiving cancer treatment, using
antibiotics, patients with diabetes, patients with nutrient deficiencies, patients on steroid
therapy, women who do vaginal douching, pregnant women, and oral contraceptive use.