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Basic Principles of Cancer Treatment (Nursing)

by Rhonda Lawes

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    00:00 Hi! Welcome to our video on basic principles of cancer chemotherapy.

    00:06 Now, we're gonna focus on cytotoxic medications.

    00:10 Those are cell-cyto, toxic- killers.

    00:14 Now, before we get started, I want you to stand up and get a little active.

    00:19 Now don't worry, no one's gonna be looking at you.

    00:21 But I need you to put your pencil down, away from your paper and stand up next to your chair. Ready? Hey, I can wait 'til you can stand.

    00:31 Now I wanna teach you, before we get started, I wanna teach you the five areas of high growth fraction cells in your body.

    00:39 Now why we're learning this is because cytotoxic medications go after high growth fraction cells.

    00:47 Cancer cells are high growth fraction cells but I also have five main areas in my body that are also high growth fraction cells.

    00:57 See, here's the deal.

    00:58 I wish chemotherapy would just kill the cancer cells.

    01:02 But sadly, it kills all the high growth fraction cells.

    01:07 So we're gonna do something that kinda helps you get a jumpstart on understanding this video but it's going to involve actions.

    01:13 Don't worry, I'm gonna look more ridiculous than you because you can see me and I can't see you.

    01:20 But this is how I help students to remember and to learn these concepts.

    01:24 Okay, so let's start at the top.

    01:26 Start with me.

    01:27 Hair, okay. Uhm, this isn't gonna work unless you actually do it with me.

    01:33 So, I need you to touch your head.

    01:35 Hair. GI. Skin. Reproductive! and Bone marrow.

    01:44 Okay, say it with me again.

    01:46 I promise you I'm using research-based concepts.

    01:49 No matter how silly you're feeling.

    01:51 So we're gonna go through this multiple times.

    01:54 Hair, GI, Skin, Reproductive! Bone marrow.

    01:59 Say it with me.

    02:01 Hair, G.. no, I'm serious.

    02:03 I need you to do this with me.

    02:05 So let's start again.

    02:07 Right, ready? Hair. GI. Skin. what's next? Reproductive! and bone marrow.

    02:16 Three more times quickly.

    02:18 Hair. GI. Skin. Reproductive! bone marrow.

    02:22 Hair. GI. Skin. I heard you say, Reproductive! and bone marrow.

    02:27 Last time, let's see how fast you can go.

    02:30 Hair. Gi. Skin. Reproductive! and Bone marrow.

    02:33 Okay, now grab your seat, you did really well.

    02:38 As long as... there's a few of you out there that might not have been with me.

    02:41 But, this is what we're doing.

    02:43 First of all you're standing up and changing your location of studying.

    02:47 Anytime you feel kinda stuck studying, move to a different location.

    02:51 Don't study in the same place everytime.

    02:54 Wake your brain up by moving around.

    02:56 Now, I actually did some things that kinesthetic learners actually like, they like movement with their learning.

    03:03 I did things that were let's say, somewhat annoying but they also stand out.

    03:08 I didn't just say, reproduction.

    03:11 I said it in a ridiculous voice but it will stick in your brain better.

    03:15 When you do someting that makes it stand out to you, I did it in order, head to toe.

    03:21 Hair. GI. Skin. Reproductive! and bone marrow.

    03:26 Now when I have to learn a list, one of the things I can do is now take that list.

    03:31 When I know it in my mind, it takes several repetitions so I remember the five areas, I do it backwards.

    03:37 So then I'll tell my brain: Bone marrow, Reproductive! Skin, Gi, Hair.

    03:43 The more you play with that list going in different orders, starting in the middle going backwards to the top of the list.

    03:51 All of those things are teaching your brain to look at the concept from multiple different angles.

    03:55 So while it might seem silly, I promise you.

    03:58 It's actually based in proven research-based strategies on how you can help your brain remember things.

    04:04 So now you know the five areas of high growth fraction cells in your body.

    04:10 Remember, cytotoxic medications kill high growth fraction cells.

    04:15 Cancer is high growth fraction cells but so are high growth fraction cells in my hair, my GI tract, in my skin, in my reproductive! and my bone marrow.

    04:29 So let's start from the top and work our way down.

    04:33 You got cancer that's just unrestrained growth, right? It's these cells don't follow the rules.

    04:39 So I want you to kinda get a feeling of what makes cancer, cancer.

    04:43 Why isn't it or how is it different than other cells? First of all, it doesn't follow the rules.

    04:49 The growth - it just moves wherever it wants, you can see it, it can hop into that blood stream which we'll talk about in just a minute.

    04:56 It just doesn't listen to the feedback mechanisms.

    04:59 Other cells are more polite.

    05:01 They grow at a responsive rate, they respond when they're getting too big and they stop growing.

    05:05 They follow the rules.

    05:07 But cancer cells don't follow any rules because they're invasive.

    05:11 See that cancer cell that's made it into the blood stream? Well that's gonna let it metastasize - that's when cancer starts in one part of the body and spreads to the lymph and blood into the other parts of the body, metastases.

    05:24 So if you're thinking about, what makes a cancer cell, cancer? It doesn't play by the rules, unrestrained growth, it doesn't listen to feedback mechanisms, it's invasive and it can spread to other areas of the body.

    05:37 These are the type of cells we're going after.

    05:41 Okay, so what can we do to treat cancer? Nobody wants to hear that diagnosis associated with themselves or someone they care about.

    05:48 But when you have a diagnosis of cancer, we kinda break it into 3 major categories.

    05:52 We can try surgery, cutting it out.

    05:55 We can try radiation, zapping it out.

    05:58 Or we can try some medications.

    06:01 Now under drug therapy for cancer, there's three groups.

    06:04 Cytotoxic drugs - those are the ones we're gonna focus on.

    06:08 There's, Hormones, which we're not gonna focus on in this video.

    06:12 And there's also biologic response modifiers.

    06:15 But what we're gonna learn about in this video series are cytotoxic agents.

    06:20 So know that when you are treating overall treatment plan of cancer, you could use any combination of these options: surgery, radiation and drug therapy.

    06:30 But we're gonna focus on the drug therapy.

    06:35 Okay, so chemotherapy drugs are more toxic to cells and tissues that have a high growth fraction.

    06:41 Cancer cells have a high growth fraction which is why we did all that.

    06:45 I'll call it fun stuff, whether you felt like it with that way or not at the beginning of the video.

    06:50 We've got the healthy high growth fraction cells in those five areas that we did together.

    06:55 So take a minute, pause the video and see if at a separate area of your note, you can write the five areas of high growth fraction cells in your body from head to toe.

    07:14 Okay I'm gonna place the answers on the screen for you there and you see the icons that we chose to help you remember that.

    07:20 Hair follicles, GI tract, Skin, Reproductive! and Bone marrow.

    07:28 So we've got these 5 icons just to remind you but if you've used your own body in learning and anytime you can do that, that's a great strategy.

    07:36 Let's talk about the ways you can actually receive chemotherapy - they're called modalities.

    07:41 Now we can give intermittent chemotherapy, what happens is, because of the severe effects of chemotherapy, we'll give a patient a dose and then it'll be a matter of weeks before that patient's blood levels are safe enough for them as to receive another dose.

    07:57 So, we give a dose, you monitor the patient over a period of weeks and we watch their blood levels and once they reached a safe level again, we administer another dose.

    08:08 That's intermittent therapy.

    08:09 Receive a dose, wait some time, receive another dose.

    08:14 We can also do combination chemotherapy, where they're getting more than one chemotheraphy at a time.

    08:19 and they may be on the same or different schedules.

    08:22 Regional drug delivery means that we can actually deliver the medication very close to the spot of the cancer.

    08:29 So I've listed three options for you there.

    08:32 Take a minute, pause the video and review each one of the three spots where we can deliver regional drug delivery of chemotherapy.

    08:47 Okay, here's your chance to study as you go.

    08:51 Supercharge your memory! See if you can answer the questions at this point in your notes without looking back at your other notes.

    09:00 Okay, so in your notes I want you to answer the question in those 2 blanks.

    09:04 What tissue does chemotherapy target? And then below that, write out again - I know, the five areas of high growth fraction.

    09:14 I promise you, repetition is the key to memorizing.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Basic Principles of Cancer Treatment (Nursing) by Rhonda Lawes is from the course Cancer Medications (Nursing). It contains the following chapters:

    • Healthy High Growth Fraction Cells
    • What makes Cancer - Cancer?
    • Basic Principles of Cancer Treatment
    • Chemotherapy Modalities

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Hair
    2. Gastrointestinal
    3. Skin
    4. Reproductive
    5. Renal
    1. Unresponsive growth, unresponsive to feedback mechanisms, invasive growth, formation of metastasis
    2. Unresponsive growth, responsive to feedback mechanisms, invasive growth, formation of metastasis
    3. Responsive growth, responsive to feedback mechanism, invasive growth, formation of metastasis
    4. Unresponsive growth, responsive to feedback mechanism, noninvasive, formation of metastasis
    1. Metastatic cell
    2. Toxic cell
    3. Bloodborne cell
    4. Escape cell
    1. It kills high-growth cells.
    2. It has less side effects.
    3. Hair loss is minimal.
    4. It does not travel in the circulatory system.
    1. Intracavity
    2. Intrathecal
    3. Intra-arterial
    4. Transdermal
    5. Subcutaneous

    Author of lecture Basic Principles of Cancer Treatment (Nursing)

     Rhonda Lawes

    Rhonda Lawes


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