Want to dub in to the topic of social class.
So social class revolves around
something called stratification.
This refers to the way in which
we are categorized within the society.
So we’ve decided to sort of
segment and figure things out.
So its serves to define differences (or inequalities)
but also serves to reinforce and perpetuate them.
So via stratifying, socially stratifying a population
we actually are putting people on bins
and sort of stereotyping and that
actually makes it a little bit more difficult
to get out of those categorizations.
Now, the caste system is one that you
may heard and this is a close stratification
where people can do nothing to change
the category that they are born into.
So you are born into upper class
or you’re born into lower class.
And that’s where you are belong.
That’s where you gonna stay.
And you really can’t move in across
within the caste system.
Now social class on the other hand are
groups of the individuals or groups based on
wealth, education or income.
But they do have the possibility to move.
So there is certain countries where in the
caste system if you’re born into the affluence
you will marry into the affluence.
You’re not gonna marry outside of that.
And same thing, if your
born being poor in the lower class
that’s pretty much where you going to stay,
that’s where your kids where you going to stay,
and that where your kids kids going to stay.
In North America for example, you do
have the upper class, the lower class.
We’ll go through those categories in the sec.
But they - you can move within the class.
So somebody who’s middle class can
marry somebody who’s in the upper class.
And what we are talking based
on our education, income or wealth.
So in North America, it can be categorize
roughly in these four categories.
We have the upper class, which represents
about only 3% of the population.
But this are the individuals who make millions
to billions of dollars in terms of annual income.
The middle class, which represents
the largest portion of the pie,
they represent about 40% almost half of the
population making around roughly $50,000 annually.
And then, we have the working class, 30% of the
population earning between 19 to just to under 50.
And the lower class, 27% of the
population earn less than $18,000.
So you can see that 97% of the class, in the
social class are not the ones making the millions.
So and even in terms of the actual, middle
and the working class represent 70% okay.
So 70% of the population is really
a heavy heavy piece of the pie
and so you can see how they have –
they sometimes should have the ability
to really influence society.
But a lot of times
it’s the upper class or even the lower class
that have the most dramatic impact on society.
Now, using somebodies measures, we determine
somebody called socioeconomic status.
And we have use this throughout this modules.
And what we are referring to is an economic
and sociological, combined total measure
of a person work experience or the individuals –
in individuals are families economic
and social position which is made up of
income education in relation to others.
So it’s kind of a lot of words that are things
to grasp. But what I really want you to remember
is that it’s based primarily on sort of
your income and education and also your job.
So if you are a lawyer, it comes you’ve
going for school for a long time.
and you are making a lot of money, you’re going
to be higher up on socioeconomic status or scale
versus somebody who say is a high school
dropout and works in your local fast-food place.
So we have different categories and
broken down into three categories. We have
your High SES, Middle SES and Low SES.
With high SES representing professionals
that are affluent
who are making a lot of money and
have good jobs and good education.
Middle being a large segment being in the
population that does have some education
is working and is making money.
And low would be those are the marginalized.
Now, class consciousness is the term used to
refer to the beliefs that a person holds regarding
their social class or economic rank in the society.
So if you come from say a higher or upper class
and class consciousness is like the name applies
as you being aware of the fact that
you are rich. I am rich.
And coming with that is the
set of beliefs and norms
and you propagate and live those beliefs.
So the structure of their class
and their class interest all become
things that are guided by that class.
and they are also guides their
behavior and how they act, okay.
Now, false consciousness refers
to something slightly older
and that’s when members of this
higher class go on into the actually.
I don’t want to say they full.
But they try to convince the proletariat
category the population. This are
people are just survive on working.
So you don’t have a lot of worth.
They don’t have a lot a lot of sorry
material goods, home, money in the bank.
but what they have are their hands and
they’re commodity, they’re resource is labor.
And there ability to work.
And so in the past you have the examples
of where the upper class have kind of shape
and made those in that lower class
believe that this is what things are,
this is the way that needs to be.
So we called that false consciousness.
Now, cultural capital refers to a non-financial
social assets that promotes social mobility
beyond economic means.
So in English we are saying, capital refers to
saying asset or a commodity something good.
And what is a cultural commodity we are
saying things like education, intellect,
the way you speak, the way you look.
This are all things that you can
actually utilize to your advantage.
And I’ll help you move within
and beyond your class, okay.
Another sort of I won’t say competing on
complementary type of capitals social capital.
This refers to the potential for social
networks to allow for upwards social mobility.
So we have here in the image it’s not
of what you know, it’s who you know.
So example is, saying you are trying to
get into a great IV league medical school.
And you need to go in an
Now, if your dad happens to
be the governor of that state
and just happens to have gone to school
with the admitting dean of that university.
I have a feeling that it might be a little bit
easier if they lean on those relationships to say,
“Remember when we were in school together?
Remember when we went to go and play polo
and we hangout and we were buddies.
Listen, by the way my son is trying to get in.”
Now, that’s not capital or values that
the son who is trying to get in the school
is brining into the table. That’s more
social and it’s the network that his father
has his standing, the respect that
he has, that allows him to get in.
So in terms of moving up and
down in the social ladder,
social capital is one that does not
lean on actual individual characteristics.
Social reproduction refers to the structures
and activities in society that’s serve to transmit
and reinforce social inequality
from one generation to the next.
So again, let’s break this down.
We are talking about,
if you have a certain social norms
expectations and ways that you stratify
and you’re part of a certain group,
well, how do you maintain that?
And how do we propagate that?
And lets stand to the social reproduction.
So from generation to generation,
why is it that this continue to persist?
So social inequality is the chief through
social stratification, which is shaped by:
this three things.
Power, privilege and prestige.
This three points will also have
come further social reproduction.
So if you have power, so that’s the ability
to get others to do something you want.
You want to maintain that power.
And examples of those with powered be those
are that are higher up in a political party
Those are higher up in any type of institution
like a manager or a boss or an owner.
Privilege is a special right or advantage
available only in a particular person or group
based on some asset that they have
like education. So say for example,
if you say you are a doctor or you have a PHD,
all the sudden certain doors open up,
tables open up or restaurants. Its easier
for you to get in certain places versus
“You know I am just a lowly worker.
I’m sorry sir, we can’t help you right now.
There is no tables available.”
And then we have prestige,
this is your reputation in society.
If you are a part of a family that has
a deep reputation in that community
and you consider affluent. That will have
a huge role in where you following terms of
in the social stratification.
And so that can cause inequality
because some of these are things that you
don’t necessarily work at and create.
But prestige which comes from your families
Something that you are born in too.
Now, some of these are use in order
to maintain social reproduction.
So you use your family’s prestige and
you use your power as an owner
in order to keep that divide.
You don’t want to let anybody in
and become a CEO of your company.
You’re going to determine who’s in.
And you’re going to determine
who can look and move
into your neighborhood.
and that allows you to
maintain that stratification.
And that allows it to
persist across generations.
Now, we’re going to look at another
concept of intersectionality.
And this is a unique way of looking
all the possible ways and all the possible
characteristics or drivers that
ships social stratification.
So this is the study of overlapping
or intersecting social identities
and related systems of
oppression, domination, or discrimination.
So in English we’re saying, there’s
a lot of different ways you can be stratified.
And you need to actually take consideration
of all of those and take them all into account
per person in order to figure out, how was it
that they can actually be oppressed,
dominated or discriminated upon?
So factors such as gender, race, class,
sexual orientation, religion, caste.
They are all interact on multiple
levels but also simultaneously.
And if you see how they all interacts.
So say for example based on race, I’m a certain race.
But I have a lot of education, but
I’m transgendered. And I’m a Muslim and so on.
If you take all of those into consideration,
where there is sometimes potential
discrimination or oppression.
That’s going to give you an ultimate
sort of final answer of what
is my overall stratification.
Another way to look at it is
consider situations were an outsider
with some authority or power is making a
decision based on what he’s seeing in front of you.
And he might not have a
full picture of the actual
intersectionality of you
as an individual.
So say you’re an accomplish philanthropist.
You are a surgeon.
You’ve done doctors over that borders.
You’re great individual
but you happen to be of a visual minority.
Let’s say you’re black. And you are
walking down the street.
And you get stop by a police officer.
And the police officer all of the sudden
is going to rationally profile you
and discriminate based on your race
without understanding perhaps not that
it’s a problem but without considering
all the different other things that
you possess in terms of his stratification.
So I’m not saying it’s okay to not get discriminated
if you’re a black and not a doctor.
That’s not what I’m saying. I’m saying that
the individual who is assessing you
hasn’t considered anything
other than simply one factor.
Wherein reality in everyday life,
intersectionality says that
all of these factors are considered
in how we are stratified.
Now, various types of oppression
interrelate creating a system that reflects
the intersection of multiple forms
of discriminations. So that’s a nice
way of something all of the up what I just
said. And that the image blow here the pics
one individual on all different
factors on how they intersect.
Now, let’s take a look at how the
social stratification impacts, is impacted
in terms of our health.
So socioeconomic status gradient in health
suggests that there is a continual gradient,
from the top to the bottom of the
SES ladder, relating status to health.
So the higher you’re up on
the socioeconomic status ladder
the greater your health outcomes.
We also know that those
are lower on the SES scale
have been linked to more chronic
and systematic disease.
Things like diabetes, cardiovascular disease.
And we know, that this trend actually
continues even when we control
for economic resources and access to health care.
So let’s break this down on
a couple of straight points.
If you are more affluent,
you have more education.
We see that you at the end of the day
it simply put our healthier living,
longer lives high quality of life versus
lower in the socioeconomic status scale
its link to more disease. And even when
you say, “okay what if I balance for
the resources that are available
and access to health care.
You still see this regimen.
And the reasoning for that, is if you look for
somebody’s in directs of effects of being on the
lower SES scale that would include things like
in the sort of what were the jobs that you have.
and economically, sorry, resource wise if
you’re not making as much you have less
availability in order to look at positive
health care outcome like going to the gym
or eating organic chicken
versus eating process food.
So all these things that ultimately
will impact you’re overall health.
So, education is a key driver in that.
so it’s good to go to school.
It’s good that you are writing
your MCAT. If you don’t go to school,
Sometimes, not sometimes but it
will impact overall health outcomes.
Now, global stratifications.
So we’re kind of now extrapolating the
stratification that were seing in society.
And we can look at it in
terms of in the world, globally.
Now, what I as referring to is comparison
that we do, a relative comparison
And we say that it compares the wealth economic
stability and power across countries.
Now, this global comparison identifies that
there is worldwide patterns of global inequality.
So we’re saying that these inequalities
that we’re identifying within our countries
are difficult. And we’re trying to manage those
but it’s actually global scale as well.
So we know that certain countries
are the dominant countries
And they seem to hold the
majority of the resources.
Look at your oil rich countries
or your resource rich countries
they tended to do quite well. And access
to resources between these countries
impacts the other social factors
So, if you’re a country that doesn’t have
a lot of access to these resources or you
even within those countries don’t
have access to those resources.
That’s really going to impact things
like mortality or how often you’re sick?
Or how often you die?
And the burden of inequality is place
on the certain segments of the population.
So not only is it that a certain
countries is in getting it.
but there is certain individuals within
that country are that getting it.
So think of a country that really leans on
another for oil. And as result the cost of oil
in that country is high.
And you might use oil to drive your car.
You might use oil to heat your home.
Now, if you’re in that country that’s getting
these resources some other country
that you have money. Cos you’re higher
on the SES scale within that country.
You will be able to afford that oil. You know if
to pay pre them that’s okay. You’re affluent.
You’re educated. You have a good job. And so
you can afford to buy the expensive oil
To heat your home and drive a car.
But if you’re in that country and you’re low in
that SES scale, not only you’re low in SES scale
but you don’t have this resource
that if you’re within your own country
maybe you’d be accessible because
its coming from someone else
as even more expensive and there’s no way
you can afford it. So now, you don’t have a car.
And now you have to walk to work.
And now you can't heat your home and you
have to use alternative ways to heat
your home and so your house is freezing and
therefore you get sick more often and it snowballs.
So this global stratification in terms
of wealth and economic stability
leads to this global inequality and ultimately
and its falling on a smaller segment
of that socially stratified population
or those are the loan the SES scale.