We kicked this off with a question. The passage
indicates that the caves were what? Dug out by hand,
carved out by rivers, formed by
earthquakes, or created by falling rock.
Paragraph 3 states that the rock in which
these caves have been hewn is very soft.
So, hewn indicates that it is possible
to have carved these out by hand.
But do you think it leaves a little bit of
latitude for possibly carved out by the rivers?
We clarify this with paragraph 4 where we state there
are abundant evidences from the marks of tools employed,
that the greater part of each cave was pecked out
by hand which would clearly be answer selection A.
Question 2 states summit
refers to the what?
Now, when we have something in quotes or italics on a CARS
question, that can refer to a definition in context
So something that maybe has a different meaning
than how we would use it in everyday life.
Paragraph 1 tells us that the summit of the cliffs above the
caves, large rectangular ruins with fallen walls were
though it can't be C which would be the opposite base
of each cave if this is in fact above the caves.
And D seems pretty clearly not to be the
case the people who inhabited the caves.
That leaves us between A and B, top
of the cliff and the rock material.
The rock material could possibly be the correct
answer if we had really good context for that.
I don't think we do based on
this context we've already read.
I think we can safely state that summit refers
to the top of the cliff, answer selection A.
Question 3 then goes on to state "The authors
claim these ruins are not unique because" what?
Now, the passage states that there is a slightly
stratum just below the line of entrances to the cavate
And that resembles answer selection C,
they are made of reddish-brown stratum.
But it also states that the feature other similar ruins
share is geographical
position and archaeological remains, not necessarily that
That being said, we don't have geographical position
and archaeological remains as an answer selection.
We have to dig a little bit further, no pun intended, to
passage goes on to state these ruins are however in no
peculiar but closely resemble those ordinarily found in a
position throughout this region and elsewhere in Arizona and
The phrase "in no respect peculiar" I really like
how it aligns to the phrase in the question stem
"are not unique", it's not an exact synonym
but these ideas are close enough to lead us
to answer selection A, they resemble those
found elsewhere in New Mexico and Arizona.
Question 4 then states "Based on the passage, the authors
that the Verde dwelling had a large population based on"
The large number of rooms, the size of the rooms, the large
of debris left behind, or the written records found in the
The final paragraph states that "The number of these
(it's kind of an older term for caveman) placed on the Verde
is very large.
Indeed the mesas may be said to be fairly
honeycombed with subterranean habitations."
This kind of aligns with either
answer selections A or C.
A because those honeycombed habitations
could be the large number of rooms
and C because the debris left behind could align with
another growth that in
paragraph 1 states "large rectangular ruins with fallen
walls were discovered."
I think we need to push forward to paragraph
4 to really seal the deal which states that
"judging from the number of rooms, the cliffs on the left
the Verde must have had a considerable population when
We actually highlighted this in our first read just
because it put a focus on the human population here
and this best aligns to answer selection
A, the large number of rooms.
Question 5 then states "These dwellings
could best be described as" what.
Secure, insecure, easily
invaded, or accessible.
Now, we've actually just been building up to how these
habitations are what is accessible
according to kind of a ledge in the cliff and we're told on
a number of occasions
that they're difficult to access so I think it could be
these are secure and a few points actually states so
For example, question 4 states "These
caverns, no doubt, swarmed with human beings
and they're inaccessible position to furnish the
inhabitants with a safe refuge from enemies.
I'm comfortable either answering these from a context
perspective or from a
big picture perspective just understanding the purpose of
Either of those approaches should lead
us to answer selection A, secure.
Lastly, question 6 states "Which is not
evidence for identifying the inhabitants?"
Language comparisons, geographic location,
archaeological remains, or type of ruins.
It's kind of a funny way to phrase a question right.
How do you locate context that is not in a passage?
Again, you can use your overall understanding of
the passage here and then maybe just rule out
a few answer selections that you didn't remember with
We'll go through all of them just to be thorough.
So, we know that the people are referred to as the people of
valley and that similar communities exist across Arizona and
So that rules out B where geographic
location we see was discussed.
We know that the type of ruins can be distinguished
between the caves where the people dwell
and kind of a functional type of building on top of a
promontory so that rules
out answer choice D, type of ruins where we're discussing
types of ruins.
Between A and C language comparisons
and archaeological remains,
we might rule out answer selection C just from kind of a big
picture perspective, it's pretty clear that those were
whereas language comparisons did not show up in the passage
and we can comfortably select answer selection A as correct.