Adipose Tissue – Development of Diabetes Type 2 (Nursing)

by Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

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    00:01 Let's look at the fourth one.

    00:02 Again, this picture really helps me because it's showing you the effect of adipose tissue.

    00:07 So the fourth factor or the hormones and cytokines that are produced by adipose tissue, I've got a really cool picture of the skin there for you.

    00:16 Look you've got the epidermis.

    00:17 So I'm starting out this level.

    00:19 You've got the epidermis.

    00:21 Then the next layer is the dermis, and then you've got the adipose tissue.

    00:25 It's this kind of loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes, that's what the individual cells are called.

    00:32 Now its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, but it also cushions and insulates the body.

    00:38 It's primarily located beneath the skin, but it's also found around the internal organs.

    00:43 And remember, we just talked about fatty liver.

    00:46 So the right amount of adipose tissues supposed to store energy in the form of fat, and it's going to cushion and insulate the body as appropriate.

    00:54 When that gets out of balance and out of whack and a patient has excess adipose tissue, that's when the balance gets all off.

    01:02 Because this is killer factor 4 of 4.

    01:05 The adipocytes of the adipose cells.

    01:08 You end up with this tissue, releasing these adipokines like adiponectin and leptin.

    01:13 Now stay with me.

    01:14 I don't think you like, "Good night, what is this?" Well, I want you to have a crystal clear understanding of the damage that adipose tissue can do in our bodies when it's out of balance.

    01:27 So we know this tissue makes the adipokines.

    01:30 Two examples of adipokines are adiponectin and leptin.

    01:36 So okay, now this is getting real fancy here, right? It's really not that bad. Stick with me.

    01:42 On the left, there's a picture of obese adipocytes.

    01:47 Now move to the right.

    01:48 Three substances: adipokines, chemokines, and cytokines.

    01:53 Still with me? Okay, those are just categories.

    01:56 So we're talking about obese adipocytes.

    02:00 We've got, they put out adipokines, chemokines, and cytokines.

    02:04 Now, there's a lot of names right there.

    02:07 There's a lot of names right there.

    02:09 I'm not looking for you to memorize those.

    02:11 I'm going to walk you through the key points.

    02:13 Just add this to your notes.

    02:15 So see under the adipokines, we've got leptin, adipoconectin, resistin, apelin,visfatin.

    02:19 Okay? Again, not asking you to rememorize those names.

    02:25 What I want you to zero in on is know that these are all secreted by adipose tissue.

    02:30 Now they play a role in glucose and fat metabolism.

    02:34 Ding, ding, ding, ding, ding.

    02:36 This is the important part.

    02:37 Not that you memorize all these names, especially look at those chemokines.

    02:41 Those are some weird names that will never stick in your mind at this point in your career.

    02:46 But I want you to know these are secreted by adipose tissue three types: adipokines, chemokines, and cytokines.

    02:54 They play a role in glucose and fat metabolism, and they can cause chronic inflammation.

    03:01 Now you have our attention. Right? Because we know inflammation.

    03:04 If it's used for healing, that's a good thing.

    03:06 But if it's chronic inflammation, now we've got some real issues.

    03:12 See, when this is out of whack, see all the arrows extra leptin extra, extra, extra, extra, extra extra.

    03:17 Now we've got a problem because excess of these substances leads to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

    03:25 We know that a lot of this also leads to increased insulin resistance, which the next stop, is risk of type 2 diabetes.

    03:35 So what's the takeaway point? Don't get frustrated, you can totally do this.

    03:39 We've got obese adipocytes, they put out adipokines, chemokines, and cytokines you can do that, you got it.

    03:47 We know that these play a role in glucose and fat metabolism, and they cause chronic inflammation.

    03:54 Both of these challenges are going to lead us to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

    04:00 So this chronic inflammation is a really serious concept because we believe to be a significant factor in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

    04:12 Hey, why do you keep bringing this up? Because it matters.

    04:16 We want to understand how the impact of these adipocytes are on the average body.

    04:21 So we can help patients understand the impact on their bodies.

    04:25 So it's so important, I'm asking you just, will you write those three things in your notes by inflammation? So next inflammation, will you write insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

    04:39 So the next time someone asks you about why it's a challenge to be overweight? Not that you're going to be asked that.

    04:45 But what the impact is on your body don't talk about body image as much as, "Hey, there's some real chemical reactions that happen in our body." So every step that you make towards health is going to help resolve some of these reactions and the risks for inflammation, for cardiovascular disease, for type 2, and insulin resistance.

    05:07 See put a positive spin on it.

    05:09 Don't make someone feel guilty for not making the absolute healthiest choices or having extra weight, help them see small steps toward a healthier lifestyle is going to make a phenomenal difference in their body on a chemical level.

    05:23 That's what you do.

    05:25 because this adiponectin and leptin, let's talk, just a little more about it, I promise.

    05:29 I just want to hit a couple more concepts home.

    05:32 These are protein hormones. They modulate metabolic processes.

    05:37 So these two little fellers right here that you see at the bottom of your screen are the two main adipokines that affect insulin sensitivity.

    05:45 So underneath these little fellers, I want you to write in insulin sensitivity in your notes.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Adipose Tissue – Development of Diabetes Type 2 (Nursing) by Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN is from the course Diabetes Type 1 and 2: Introduction and Risk Factors (Nursing).

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Adipokines
    2. Chemokines
    3. Cytokines
    4. Glucose
    5. Amylase
    1. Stores energy in the form of fat
    2. Cushions and insulates the body
    3. Stores hormones for energy
    4. Absorbs extra waste products
    5. Supports the movement of joints
    1. Insulin resistance
    2. Type 2 diabetes
    3. Cardiovascular disease
    4. Anemia
    5. Obesity

    Author of lecture Adipose Tissue – Development of Diabetes Type 2 (Nursing)

     Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

    Rhonda Lawes, PhD, RN

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