oesophageal atresia. I mentioned complex syndromes
and VATER or VACTERL syndrome, maybe one of those,
where a baby may be born with a whole combination
of things which have not gone well.
So there may have anomalies of the vertebrae. The anus
may be blind ending. There may be cardiovascular problems.
One might have a tracheo-oesophageal fistula.
There may also be oesophageal atresia,
and you’ll note that the acronym has the
American spelling of oesophagus.
There may be a renal abnormalities and limb anomalies
as well. This particular set, this constellation
of conditions is called a VATER or VACTERL
syndrome. Lungs may also fail to develop.
One cause of this is a diaphragmatic hernia,
a hole in the developing hernia.
And this, perhaps more frequently on the left-hand
side, allows part of the gut, in this case, the
colon, to enter into the pleural cavity. If
this happens in early stage, the lung will
be underdeveloped. It lacks the space to develop
fully, and therefore, it will always remain
smaller than it should be. And this underdevelopment
of the lung on the affected side means that
the adult may be more vulnerable to lung problems
later in life because one of the lungs is
smaller than it would normally be. In addition,
we may also have agenesis, failure of the