Male Reproductive Organs: Introduction

by James Pickering, PhD

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    00:00 In this lecture we are going to look at the male reproductive organs.

    00:06 But we also, because we are in this region, going to look at the bladder and the rectum.

    00:11 So we will start off with by looking at the boundaries of the abdomiopelvic cavity and looking at the bony pelvis.

    00:19 This is important as we progress now into the pelvic part of the course.

    00:25 We will look at the bladder. Its relation to the other organs and its structure.

    00:29 And then we spend considerable time looking at the male reproductive organs. We will look at the testes. We will look at the ductus deference.

    00:37 We then look at the seminal vesicles, the ejaculatory ducts and the prostate.

    00:42 And then we will look most posteriorly within the pelvis, and we will look at the rectum.

    00:47 The relations of the rectum and also the structure of the rectum itself.

    00:53 But essentially the main focus of this lecture is the male reproductive organ and these are essential for the sexual reproduction.

    01:01 They produce, store and expel the male gamete sperm, during sexual intercourse.

    01:09 But let's have a look at the abdominopelvic cavity and specifically the pelvis and that's what we are looking at here. Previously we saw the posterior abdominal wall filling this kind of space around here. But now we are concentrating purely on this region. This is the pelvis or the innominate bones and we are really be going to concentrating on the structures that are found within this region.

    01:37 But remember that the abdominal contents extend into the pelvic cavity.

    01:43 So one like the thorax and the abdomen which is separated by that partition the diaphragm. There is no clear separation.

    01:52 Remember, the abdominal viscera are bound by the peritoneum.

    01:57 That doesn't happen in the pelvis.

    02:00 The peritoneum drapes on top of the pelvic organs. I will explore that as we will go on.

    02:06 Now the pelvic cavity, this funnel-shaped space is bounded by bones, ligaments and muscles.

    02:14 And it contains the urinary system - the ureters and the bladder.

    02:19 Pelvic reproduction organs: In the male we have the prostate, seminal vesicles.

    02:24 In the female we have the uterus and the ovaries.

    02:27 And it also contains the distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the rectum.

    02:33 So if we look at the bony pelvis then we can see there is various structures that we need to be familiar with.

    02:39 So if we look, we can see posteriorly here we have the space where the 5th lumbar vertebrae will sit and then we have the sacrum which we can see down here. And then most inferiorly we have the coccyx and this marks the posterior boundary of the pelvis.

    03:00 We can see that if we look at the sagittal section, we can see we have L5 vertebrae here.

    03:07 And then we have the sacrum which is radiating in this direction finishing up with the coccyx.

    03:13 We can see most anteriorly we have the pubic symphysis here and then next to it, we have the pubic crest which is running along here.

    03:22 Running from the pubic crest all the way around to the sacrum we have this pelvic brim and that's running all the way around and that's forming this nice pelvic brim.

    03:34 That's separate as we see the greater from the lesser pelvis.

    03:39 We can see this also in the sagittal section where we have the pubic symphysis here and then we have the pelvic brim running along here.

    03:49 We can also see if we radiate away inferiorly from the pubic symphysis. We can see what's known as the inferior pubic ramus here and that runs towards the ischium and you have the ischio pubic ramus along here.

    04:04 This part is called the superior pubic ramus.

    04:08 We can see this create a foramen and that's obdurator foramen and previously we spoke about obdurator foramen having obdurator artery pass through. We will soon see the obdurator artery, nerve and veins passes through it.

    04:24 We can see posteriorly on the ischium we have these little notches. These are known as the greater and the lesser sciatic notches. And these notches are converted into foramina via a series of important ligaments.

    04:39 Here we have what's known as the ischial spine and here we have the ischial tuberosity.

    04:45 Connecting the ischial spine to the sacrum is the sacrospinous ligament which we can see here.

    04:53 Connecting the ischial tuberosity to the sacrum, we have the sacrotuberous ligament which we can see up here.

    05:00 And these two ligaments convert these notches into foramina.

    05:05 So now we have the greater sciatic foramen and we have the lesser sciatic foramen.

    05:11 We will come back to these when we look at the perineum. But they are really important structures.

    05:16 So superiorly when we looked down onto the pelvis, we can see what's known as the pelvic inlet.

    05:23 And that is bordered by the pelvic brim, the pubic symphysis and the sacral promontory which we can see here.

    05:31 We can demarcate that in the sagittal one by this line here, and that's the pelvic inlet.

    05:37 We also have the pelvic outlet and that's bordered by the pelvic diaphragm.

    05:43 and the pubic symphysis and the coccyx.

    05:46 And that is going to be running down in this region here and that is the pelvic outlet.

    05:52 So we have structures entering into the pelvis through the pelvic inlet and things can pass out of the pelvis via the pelvic outlet and we can see that here.

    06:03 The pelvic inlet is separating the pelvis into greater and lesser pelvis. Above the pelvic inlet we have the greater pelvis which is going to be this region up here.

    06:16 And that contains the ileum and it contains the sigmoid colon.

    06:20 Below this pelvic brim we have the lesser pelvis.

    06:25 and that's in this region here which contains the bladder, reproductive organs and also the rectum.

    06:33 The inferior limits of the pelvic...

    06:37 of the lesser pelvis of the... inferior limit of the lesser pelvis is the pelvic diaphragm and it is a sheet of muscle.

    06:46 The pelvic diaphragm is very similar to the diaphragm in that it separates the lesser pelvis from a region called the perineum which we will explore in a later class.

    06:58 So they got the lesser pelvis and they got the pelvic diaphragm and then you got the perineum underneath.

    07:05 So this muscular separation, much like the diaphragm; this muscular diaphragm separates the thorax from the abdomen.

    07:14 So that's the bony pelvis and we'll refer these structures through out this lecture and lectures to come.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Male Reproductive Organs: Introduction by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Pelvis.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Reproductive system
    2. Kidneys
    3. Retroperitoneal space
    4. Pancreas
    5. Duodenum
    1. Superior pubic ramus
    2. Iliac crest
    3. 5th lumbar vertebra
    4. Coccyx
    5. Sacrum
    1. Sigmoid colon
    2. Bladder
    3. Rectum
    4. Ovaries
    5. Testes

    Author of lecture Male Reproductive Organs: Introduction

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD

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