Now, let’s understand the various types
of articulations that we have within the vertebral
And the first type of joint or articulation
you want to understand is that that exists
between the articular processes, superior
to inferior. And these are referred to as
zygapophyseal articulations or joints. And
if we take a look here, we have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
vertebrae represented. We see costal facets
here on the bodies of these vertebrae. So,
these are thoracic. And then we get down to
this level. We no longer see costal facets.
So, we know that we’re looking at lumbar
vertebra 1 and 2. But, what we want to focus
in on, is this area here or here, for example.
Here we have the inferior articular process
of this vertebra above and then the vertebra
below here has its superior articular process.
And then, as result, we form this type of
There are segmental differences in the orientation
of the zygapophyseal joints that will confer
different ranges of motion from one segment
to another. So, if we look at the cervical
region, the orientation of these articulations
would be somewhat oblique in nature allowing
for conferring a greater range of motion.
Within the thoracic area, the orientation
of these joints is more an anterior-posterior
direction that will help to limit to some
degree the range of motion.
In addition, at the thoracic level, we have
superimposed here the ribs and that will further
restrict the range of motion. And then within
the lumbar segment, the greatest restriction
in movements imposed because of the more lateral
orientation of these particular articulations.
This particular slide is demonstrating
a type of joint referred to as a symphysis.
The plural of that is symphyses. And simply,
an anatomic symphysis is shown in through
here. This is a fibrocartilaginous joint.
So, this type of joint is found between our
vertebral bodies and the structural component
of this type of joint is going to be the intervertebral
This region here represents the intervertebral
disc with the vertebral body above, vertebral
body below. 24 of these are present within
a vertebral column. You do not have one between
C1 and C2, nor do you have intervertebral diskc
arranged within the sacral region, nor the
coccygeal region. So, you have 24.
An intervertebral disc has an outer ring called
the annulus fibrosus. And the tissue that
constitutes the annulus fibrosus is fibrocartilage.
And then the central component, which is kind
of hard to really demonstrate here, becomes
less distinct as one ages. And the more central
gelatinous component of an intervertebral
disc would represent the nucleus pulposus,
which is a remnant of the nodal cord.
There are also end plates, here on the inferior
aspect of the superior vertebral body and
on the superior aspect of the inferior vertebral
body, and these end plates are composed of
hyaline as well as fibrocartilage.