So that's really all I want to say
about the male reproductive organs.
And just to finish the lecture, I
just want to move onto the rectum.
We can see the rectum here. The distal
portion of the gastrointestinal tract
that's in the male running
posterior to the bladder.
Here we have got the anterior aspect.
We have got the pubic symphysis.
We have got the bladder and here we can
see the rectum, here is posteriorly.
The rectum is going to pass
through the pelvic diaphragm.
It is continuous with the sigmoid
colon and it joins the anal canal.
The rectum begins at the rectosigmoid
junction and this occurs anterior
to the third sacral vertebra (S3).
At this point the taena coli
that have existed around
the sigmoid colon, combine
to form a continuous
longitudinal layer and there is no omental appendices.
We don't find those but we find them
in the other parts of the colon.
The rectum is located posterior
to the seminal vesicles, the
ductus deferens and the bladder.
But there are some important peritoneal
relations of the rectum.
And we can divide
the rectum into three.
If we look here we can see
that we have the superior
third. We have the middle third
and we have this inferior
third of the rectum.
We can see the superior third has
peritoneum on both its anterior
and its lateral sides.
So the peritoneum is on the
anterior and lateral surface.
The middle third, this one
here, we can just see we have
peritoneum on its
And then the inferior third we
have no covering of peritoneal
peritoneum and its actually what's
knows as the subperitoneal
and that's this region down here.
So we can how the rectum
has different peritoneal
coverings along its course.
Here we have opened up the rectum. We can see
we will have the sigmoid colon up here
and we can now see we have
this continuous longitudinal
muscle layer. We don't
have those taeina coli.
And we can see that it extends all the way to
the skin where we have the anal opening.
And here we can find where we have got
the anus. The circled ano-rectal junction.
And I will come to the ano-rectal junction
in more detail when we look at the perineum
in a later lecture. But I
just want to concentrate
on the rectum really itself. That part
above the ano-rectal junction.
There are internal folds,
folds are present. These are superior,
intermediate and inferior
rectal folds. We can see
them passing in to the
lumen of the rectum here and these are important
as they form a shelf like structures.
That's support the faeces passing
through the rectum. They help to prevent
the faeces from just sliding away.
We also have a dilated portion of
the rectum, the rectal ampulla.
And that's important
because it can dilate.
It's positioned above
the pelvic diaphragm.
So the rectal ampulla in this region
here is above the pelvic diaphragm.
And its a place where
the faeces can be stored
prior to defaecation. It's
able to relax and distend.
So it will accommodate the
presence of the faeces.