by James Pickering, PhD

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      Slides 18 Abdominal and Pelvic Anatomy Pickering.pdf
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    00:01 In this lecture we are going to look at the perineum and external genitalia.

    00:07 So we will look at the perineum which is this shallow space inferior or can be considered to be superficial to the pelvis and the pelvic floor.

    00:18 We are going to look at the boundaries and the divisions of the perineum.

    00:23 And specifically we will look at what's called the ischioanal fossa.

    00:27 We will look at its boundaries within the perineum and also its contents.

    00:31 And then we are going to look at the perineal pouches and these can be particularly complicated. The deep and the superficial perineal pouches. And some sex differences we find for the male and the female.

    00:45 And then we will look at the neurovasculture of the perineum and return to the internal pudendal artery.

    00:53 So as I have mentioned at the top, the perineum is a shallow space which is inferior or it can be considered superficial to the pelvis.

    01:03 It contains a number of important structures including muscles and erectile tissues and these are associated with reproduction.

    01:15 So, let's first of all let's just try and orientate ourselves as to where the perineum is located.

    01:23 Now here we can see we have hemisections through the male and the female pelvis. We can see we have male here and other male here and a female.

    01:34 We have three sections through the pelvis.

    01:38 We have anterior here and posterior. Again anterior posterior anterior posterior. You should be familiar with these images by now.

    01:48 And what we can see is here the organs haven't actually been hemisected or the bones of the pelvis have been hemisected.

    01:58 And on this side that have been hemisected directly down the midline.

    02:02 Now what we can do is just draw a simple line that separates the pelvis from the perineum.

    02:09 So if we go from the pubic symphysis all the way around up to the caecum and the coccyx everything above this line is the pelvis. Everything below it is the perineum.

    02:22 We can do the same on these ones which have been hemisected through the organs; pubic symphysis to the coccyx.

    02:33 We can see everything above it is the pelvis. Everything below it is in the perineum. So in the perineum here we are including the penis. We are including muscles that guard the anal sphincter.

    02:46 In the female we can do the same.

    02:51 We can see that the urethra passes through from the pelvis to the perineum passing through the pelvic floor here. We can see the same applies for the vagina here opens up into the vestibule and we can see the same for the retum which is here. Here we can identify some muscles that guard the anal sphincter.

    03:13 So this just hopefully gives an introduction to where we are going to be investigating. An area which is superficial or inferior to the pelvic floor.

    03:25 Here is just a sentence which summarizes what we are going to do is this investigate the shallow space superficial/inferior to the pelvic cavity. And it's levator ani these muscles that we have been indicating which we looked out in the previous lecture levator ani is going to be the partition that forms the pelvic floor that separates the perineum from the pelvic cavity.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Perineum by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Pelvis.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Coccyx
    2. Pubic arch
    3. Pelvic floor
    4. Ischial tuberosity
    5. Anus
    1. Vagina
    2. Uterus
    3. Bladder
    4. Ovaries
    5. Ureters

    Author of lecture Perineum

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD

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    Great Lecture
    By laticha n. on 21. March 2021 for Perineum

    Finally! A lecture that clearly shows the boundaries of the perineum & states the contents. I am confident after watching this lecture.

    Very informative lecture
    By Deniz Y. on 22. June 2020 for Perineum

    I've previously used the Grey's student to learn about the pelvis and perineum. Despite all the information provided I was unable to visualize and understand the placement of structures. This video explains and shows very clearly the relationship of the muscles and organs in the pelvis with the perineum. Another amazing lecture.