In this lecture we are going
to look at the liver and gallbladder.
So today we'll start off by looking at
the surface anatomy, the position of the liver.
And then going to explore it's gross anatomy,
so we'll look at the anterior and posterior view.
We will look at the lobes, fissures and the porta hepatis.
We will look at the peritoneal relations and
the coronary ligaments. And then look at the blood supply
and venous drainage of the liver. And we will look
at the functional lobes and hepatic segments
towards the end. We will also look at the gallbladder,
various parts of the gallbladder, its
position against the liver and
the biliary tree and how it connects with the
pancreas and the duodenum.
Now the liver is the largest gland in the body and
because of that it is vitally important
in maintaining the internal environment.
It performs the whole number of functions
including various aspects of metabolic activity
importantly it stores glycogen
and for digestion it produces bile.
We will look at that in more detail when we
look at the biliary tree and the gallbladder.
So the surface anatomy of the liver.
We looked at briefly when we did the
surface anatomy lecture right at
the very beginning of this course.
So here we can see the liver is positioned
within the abdomen and it is actually covered
by quite of few of the ribs. We can see we have
rib 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 all protecting this right lobe of the liver.
And it's quite difficult to palpate
the liver; because, it is actually tucked under
these ribs. We can see it's existing up
in the right hypochondriac region and
it extends all the way across the epigastric
into the left hypochondriac region.
We can see its relation, it's slightly
interior to the stomach here.
It covers the duodenum and it’s also
related to the hepatic flexure of the colon.
So the liver is very large gland sitting
directly underneath of the right dome of
the diaphragm, mostly in this right
upper quadrant of the abdomen.
As I have mentioned it's
the largest gland in the body.
And it is positioned in the right hypochondria,
the epigastrium and sometimes the left hypochondriac regions.
It is inferior to the diaphragm, specifically
the right dome of the diaphragm
And the liver is made up of 4 anatomical lobes.
And these are important.
4 anatomical lobes not functional lobes.
There is the left, right, caudate and quadrate.
There is also 2 functional lobes and 8 hepatic segments.
These are really important. And these lobes are
different from the anatomical lobes.
The anatomical lobes are really named after
what you can see and various fissures that
separate the liver into various
parts: left, right, caudate, quadrate.
But they have 2 functional lobes based
on the branches of the hepatic artery
and these functional lobes can be
further divided into 8 hepatic segments
which we will explore later on.
The Liver is suspended within
the abdomen by peritoneal ligaments
primarily via the coronary ligaments
that's suspended from the diaphragm
And I have mentioned the numerous
functions of the liver. Its metabolic activities
storing glycogen and producing bile.