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Kidneys: Segments and Blood Supply – Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands

by James Pickering, PhD
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    00:00 If we look at the segments of the kidneys, then this isn't indicating the relations they have with other organs.

    00:06 This is actually just indicating the various segments.

    00:10 And each kidney is divided into five segments. So we have one here in blue and then we have 2, 3, 4 and 5. We can't see these both on each side. But on anteriorly we can see we have got 1 here and then anterior superior and anterior inferior segments here.

    00:30 We can't see those on this one; because, this is more posterior view.

    00:34 And this posterior view let us see the posterior segments which is here.

    00:39 The both of the superior and inferior segments are viewable on both this anterior and posterior view anterior here. And we can see the inferior segment here and here.

    00:50 So these 5 segments are important; because, each segment of the kidney is supplied by a specific segmental artery. And these are segmental end arteries which means they don't have any anastomoses.

    01:04 Like the anastomoses we saw between the left gastric, right gastric, left gastroomental, right gasroomental we don't have that here for the kidneys.

    01:13 We have these end arteries. So one branch of the renal artery will go and supply its specific segment. One of these 5 segments.

    01:24 So let's carry on looking at the kidney. And let's just have a brief little look at its some external features. Appreciate this kidney has been sectioned. So we can see into the hilum But let's have a look at some of these external features. We can see we have a superior pole up here and we have inferior pole down here. We have a nice convex lateral surface around here and we have an indented kind of a concave medial surface and this is the renal hilum.

    01:56 This space here is the renal hilum. The renal hilum marks the entrance to a space.

    02:03 I have indicated earlier located within the kidney and that is the renal sinus.

    02:08 So this space here is the renal sinus. We can see it's covered with it's filled with fat. Also running within the renal sinus through the renal hilum are the renal veins, the renal arteries and the renal pelvis. We'll see the formation of the renal pelvis which is continuous inferiorly with the ureter we will see the renal pelvis is formed via major and minor calices. And these drain the renal pyramids, we will speak about these later on.

    02:40 Also passing through the renal hilum within the renal sinus are going to be various nerves that control the activity of the kidneys.

    02:50 So make sure we are happy with the superior pole and inferior pole, a nice curved lateral convex surface and an indented medial surface which is the renal hilum.

    03:02 Each of these minor calices are going to be formed via the renal pyramid.

    03:08 And we can see these renal pyramids indicated here.

    03:11 And renal pyramids are where the nephrons are located.

    03:14 They do this water exchange that control the water content that control the salt content and produce urine within the kidney.

    03:26 And they pass these, this fluid passes through what's know as the renal papilla and it opens up into a minor calyx.

    03:35 So each of these renal pyramids, which we can see here, separated by a renal column.

    03:40 The renal column being an extension of the cortex in between the pyramids.

    03:46 These will give rise to a minor calyx and the minor calices are going to form a major calyx. So here we have a number of minor calices forming a major calyx. And you may have 2 or 3 minor calices merging to form a major calyx. And 2 or three major calices forming the renal pelvis.

    04:09 So here we can have a minor, minor, minor forming this major one here.

    04:13 There are few more minor ones, here and here, and they going on to form another major one here. And a few more majors receiving the minor calices here. And ultimately these are all coming in to form the renal pelvis.

    04:31 This dilated kind of triangular shaped arch within the renal hilum passes through the renal hilum and it is then continuous with the ureter.

    04:39 We can see in this case that we have may be a couple of renal pelvis that kind of split. And we can also see we have kind of a large renal pelvis here there hasn't been split and it's receiving those minor and major calices.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Kidneys: Segments and Blood Supply – Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Abdomen.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Cortex and Pyramids
    2. Major calyx
    3. Minor calyx
    4. Renal cortex
    5. Renal column
    1. Ureters
    2. Renal arteries and veins
    3. Fat
    4. Major calyces
    5. Nerves

    Author of lecture Kidneys: Segments and Blood Supply – Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD


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