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Kidneys: Renal Capsule – Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands

by James Pickering, PhD
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    00:00 So here we can see the kidneys in-section, where if we return to the previous slide if we're taking a section through the posterior abdominal wall approximately where that line is, then we can look down onto the kidneys and we can see this is the posterior aspect here. This is anterior aspect. We have got the liver and here we have got the anterolateral abdominal wall. We can see the kidneys are here on the left and right in this paracolic gutter which we can see.

    00:31 We can see the lumbar vertebral bodies here. We can see the transverse processes.

    00:35 We can see each of the kidney is sitting on this muscle bed. What we can't see also, is that the kidneys are surrounded by a substantial amount of fat which is surrounding the kidneys here. And this is the paranephric and the perinephric fat which is positioned around each of the kidneys.

    00:56 So each kidney is surrounded by this perinephric fat like a primitive fence around. And this is continuous in the renal sinus which is this space here. We can see this space is kind of hollow space within the kidney and that's the renal sinus. And the fat of the renal sinus is continuous with this perinephric fat that surrounds it.

    01:20 The renal fascia surrounds the perinephric fat and we can see we have got tough kind of membrane around here which is surrounding the kidney.

    01:30 And then lateral superficial to renal fasica, we have paranephric fat.

    01:37 And this is found superficial to this fascia and it's positioned more posteriorly.

    01:42 This capsule helps to support with it's fat that's surrounding it support and maintain the position of kidneys.

    01:51 So let's have a look at the kidneys in this view which shows the various relationships that kidneys have with the other organs and also their blood supply.

    02:01 So first of all we are looking at the kidneys, looking at the anterior surface of the kidney and we can see we've this convenient key that we have at the bottom here.

    02:10 In red, we can see this right kidney. This is the right side. This is the left side.

    02:17 The most of this kidney here is associated with the liver.

    02:21 And remember the space in between the liver and the kidney on the right side is the hepatorenal recess. And that recess is continuous with the pelvis via that right paracolic gutter.

    02:34 We can see at the superomedial aspect of each of kidneys, we have the suprarenal glands.

    02:41 So we looked at the suprarenal glands and we looked at the liver. Here we can see the hepatic flexure or the right flexure of colon is sitting against the kidney, we can see it here.

    02:52 And we can see it has relations with the jejunum that is sitting alongside this more inferior whole of the kidney.

    03:00 We can see that towards this hilum, we have the duodenum sitting against the kidney in this aspect near the renal hilum.

    03:10 And then we can see on this side on the left we have the stomach. We have the spleen and we have the pancreas and we have the descending part of the colon.

    03:19 So these shadings indicate the relationship that kidney have sitting on the posterior abdominal wall, the anterior relations they have with those organs.

    03:31 And you can see they are coming into contact with a lot of the organs within the abdomen.

    03:37 If we look at the blood supply then we can see this really clearly in this diagram If we look at the right hand side, we can see we have got the inferior vena cava and running down the midline we have got the abdominal aorta.

    03:51 We can see those unpaired visceral branches: ceolic trunk, superior mesenteric artery and down here the inferior mesenteric artery. And what's shielding the renal arteries, are the renal veins. Here we have got the inferior vena cava and we can see that the kidney is giving rise to this left renal vein here Coming away from the kidney we have got this left renal vein. Coming from the right kidney we have the right renal vein and this will then drain towards the heart in the inferior vena cava.

    04:25 We can see draining into the left renal vein here we have got the left gonadal vein, testicular or ovarian and that's draining into the left renal vein. These are shielding the arteries that lie behind them; because the left renal vein runs anterior to the aorta, it's longer and it courses across Here we can see the aorta, it's running in front of the left renal artery which we can see here. The left renal artery can in-fact course anterior to it, right of the hilum of the kidney which we can see here.

    05:01 So we can see this nice blood supply. And these blood vessels comes off at around about L1, L2 regions, where the renal arteries and the renal veins pass to and from the kidney. So this is really a nice diagram showing the blood supply and relations of the kidneys.

    05:18 Here we can just see the notes that I have added to go alongside this.

    05:22 We can see the renal arteries and the renal veins. We can see this renal artery as a longer one on the right. That's because of the position of the aorta relative to the inferior vena cava and the right renal artery passes posterior to it.

    05:38 And then we can see that the renal veins are draining into the inferior vena cava and we have a longer left renal vein as it's passing anterior to the aorta.

    05:50 So a nice diagram indicating the blood supply and the relations of the kidneys.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Kidneys: Renal Capsule – Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Abdomen.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Genitofemoral
    2. Subcostal
    3. Iliohypogastric
    4. Ilioinguinal
    1. The right renal vein is longer than the left
    2. The renal veins drain into the inferior vena cava
    3. The left gonadal vein drains into the left renal vein
    4. The renal veins are positioned anterior to the renal arteries
    1. Perinephric fat
    2. Renal fascia
    3. Paranephric fat
    4. Peritoneum
    5. Transversalis fascia

    Author of lecture Kidneys: Renal Capsule – Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD


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