In this lecture we are going to
look at the female reproductive organs.
So we are going to look at numerous
structures within the female pelvis
and include the vagina, its
position and relations to other
structures within the pelvis. I will also
look at the structure of the vagina itself.
We will look at the uterus, again
look at the structure, the variations in position
the uterus can assume. And also its peritoneal
relations in association with the broad ligament.
And then we will look at the
uterine tubes and the ovaries, their parts.
And again the relationship
they have with the peritoneum.
So the female reproductive organs consist
of the uterus, the vagina, the uterine tubes
and the ovaries. And together
they receive the sperm from the male
and they permit fertilization. And then they
facilitate the development of the embryo and foetus.
So here we have that
hemisected view once again
of the female pelvis. So we can just
orientate ourselves and see some of these
structures. And we can see
that here we have the anterior
aspect of the pelvis and
here is the posterior aspect.
In the midline we have got the pubic symphysis
and as we spoke about in the
male lecture, the previous
lecture, directly posterior
to the pubic symphysis, we have the bladder
which we can see here. And then we have the urethra
leading from the bladder
to the external environment.
Now sitting directly posterior to the
bladder into the urethra we have the vagina, this
muscular fibrous tube that
connects the uterus to the outside
world. And then sitting on
the superior surface of the
bladder, we find we have
the uterus which we can
see here. And then posterior
to the vagina we can make out the
rectum, most posteriorly sitting
against the sacrum which we can see here.
So we can see we have the bladder
most anterior in the female pelvis.
We have the vagina and the uterus
and then most posteriorly, we have the rectum.
We can see radiating away from the
uterus from its lateral surface,
we have a few structures
which we will cover in more detail. Here we can
see the uterine tubes connected to the ovary.
And here we can also see the
round ligament of the uterus.
And this is similar to the vas deferens in that it passes
through the inguinal canal and we will look at that later on.
I also just want to remind you what the relationship
these organs have with the peritoneum
and the two pouches that they
form, the two peritoneal pouches.
So if we remember we have a layer of parietal
peritoneum on the anterior abdominal wall.
And this is going to cross over the
superior surface of the bladder here
and then it can turn back over the top of
the bladder to then create the second pouch
as it dips down and then runs up over
the anterior surface of the rectum.
So we find we have two pouches, a pouch
here and we have a pouch more posteriorly
between the uterus and the rectum.
And as I mentioned previously, these two pouches
are the vesicouterine pouch between the bladder
and the uterus, so the vesicouterine
pouch here. And then behind
the bladder, sorry, then
behind the uterus and the rectum
we find we have the rectouterine pouch which is
here. We can see that peritoneum
pouch formed posterior to the uterus.
So let's carry on looking at
the general desposition of the pelvis.
And this time we are looking
at kind of superior view
down into the pelvis with the
part of the gastrointestinal tract being
removed so the small intestines which
may drape into the pelvis are being removed.
We can see most posteriorly
here, we have the rectum.
So here we find this space
will be our rectouterine pouch
and then we have the uterus
and then most anteriorly
with the pubic symphysis being deep down in here,
we find we have the bladder. And here we have the
the vesicouterine pouch.
So we can see in this view, we have these
two pouches sitting either side of the
uterus. Sitting anterior
and posterior to the uterus.
We can now in this view again clearly
see the uterine tubes radiating away
from the lateral aspect. And these
are then in contact with the
ovaries which we can see in this position.
Once again we can see destined for the anterior
abdominal wall we have the round ligament of the uterus.
So this view is if we have taken the small intestine
which will drapes down into the pelvis away
and we are looking onto the superior
surface of these pelvic organs.
In this diagram, on the right
hand side, we can see that
we have the bladder here and this
is being displaced. So this is an
anterior view and the
bladder is being displaced
to highlight the position of the
uterus in relation to the uterine tubes.
And we can see with our
kidney up here, the ureter passes
inferior to these structures.
So the ureter is passing inferior, we
can pick the ureter up here in this cartoon.
The ureter is passing inferior
to the uterine tube to the
various ligaments which we will come across. And
this is an important consideration, remember
Remember in the male, the ureter passed
inferior to the vas deferens too.
So similar arrangement here for the female.
If we then start by looking at the vagina, then
the vagina which we can see is this muscular tube
here opens up into the vestibule,
which is this space here.
And we can see the vagina is then continuous up with
the uterus at the region known as the cervix here.
The general boundaries of the vagina
are the anteriorly, we find we have
the fundus and we have the urethra
associated with the bladder.
Posteriorly, we find we have the
rectum which we can see here. So we have got the
vagina, just this musculomembranous, this musclofibrous
tube which we can see in
between these two structures.
Laterally as we will come to appreciate later
in this lecture and in subsequent lectures
we have the pelvic floor
specifically levator ani.
The vagina has a number of the roles. It receives the
penis and ejaculate during sexual intercourse.
It forms part of the birth
canal when a baby is being
delivered. And it also allows menstrual fluid
to leave from the walls of the uterus.
So the vagina is a really important
structure associated with the
female reproductive system.