Female Perineum

by James Pickering, PhD

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    00:01 So now let's have a look at the female.

    00:04 The deep and superficial pouches within the female. And we can see these on this diagram here. We can see we have the perineal membrane over on this side we can see it here.

    00:15 And we can see the perineal membrane on this side.

    00:17 What we can see if we start with the superficial perineal pouch this is the superior aspect with the pubic symphysis and I have inferior down here ischial tuberosities. So we have got the posterior border of the perineal membrane here.

    00:34 We can see that in the superficial perineal pouch of the female we have similar structures.

    00:40 We have the ischiocavernosus muscle and that ischiocavernosus muscle is going to be covering the crus instead of the corpus cavernosa but the crus of the clitoris.

    00:52 And that is very similar in orientation to the corpus cavernosum in the male.

    00:58 And again its covered by the ischiocavernosus muscle and these are coming up again from the ischiopubic ramus in this direction to unite in the midline.

    01:07 and here we find the corpus cavernosum of the clitoris.

    01:12 We can see we have the perineal membrane where these are attached. And in the midline we have in the female the vagina which opens up into the vestibules.

    01:23 Obviously in the male without the vagina, this is closed. We don't have an opening.

    01:27 But in the female, for the vagina we have this opening.

    01:32 and its flanked on either side by the bulb of the vestibule.

    01:36 And again this is a erectile tissue. The bulb of the vestibule flanks the opening to the vagina. Flanks the vaginal orifice here.

    01:44 We can see more anteriorly we have the external urethral orifice here.

    01:49 So we can see the urethral orifice. We can see the opening for the vagina and then we can see the anus. But covering the bulb of the vestibules which flanks the lateral aspects of the opening to the vagina we find we have bulbospongiosus muscle.

    02:05 So analogous structures for both the male and the female.

    02:12 If we were to take these components of the superficial perineal pouch away we then be left with the perineal membrane. And then we can see the opening for the vagina here. And then we can see the female urethra and surrounding it we have got the external urethral sphincter.

    02:31 If we were to see the deep perineal pouch, then like we did in the male previously we would have to pull this membrane away.

    02:38 Now located within the deep perineal pouch within the female, we have our urethra. We have the external urethral sphincter.

    02:46 We have deep transverse perineal muscles and we have parts of the vagina.

    02:52 And then in the superficial perinal pouch, like I have just explained, We still have the urethra.

    02:58 Its passing all the way out to the external environment.

    03:01 We now have the superficial transverse perineal muscle.

    03:07 We have the root of the clitoris. Just like in the male we have the root of the penis.

    03:11 And here we can see we have two crura covered by the ischiocavernosus muscle.

    03:18 And then these go on to form the clitoris.

    03:21 We have the bulb of the vestibule that's flanking the vagina. These are covered by bulbospongiosus muscle.

    03:29 In the female and within the superficial perineal pouch we also have the greater vestibular glands and these help to lubricate the vagina.

    03:39 We can see these are located in the superficial perineal pouch.

    03:43 So here we can see a view of the female perineum.

    03:48 If we were looking at externally these are very similar views so we have the superior aspect up here. The pubic symphysis would be deep to the mons pubis here.

    03:58 And here we have got the more posterior aspect here and here. And we can see in these two views that we have the anal opening here. We have the anal opening here we can see the anal opening. We have the coccyx backgroud here. Just like we can see the coccyx here. And then more anteriorly we can see we have the labia major more laterally. Then we have the labia minor And then we have the opening for the urethra and the opening for the vagina. And this region would be the vestibule.

    04:29 If we look, take away the skin, we can see where we have the glans clitoris. Here would be the glans clitoris around about here in diagram. Here we have the opening for the urethra and here we have the opening for the vagina.

    04:47 And here we can see the bulbospongiosus muscle covering the bulb of the vestibule.

    04:51 To find the bulb of the vestibule we have to clear away this fatty labium and if you dig down deep. You should be able to find it.

    05:02 Another view of the female perineum here and we can see that's similar to the male picture we showed. We had a section, a coronal section, down through the pelvis. Again we can see the levator ani muscles, we can see them here.

    05:17 We can see the vagina and then we can see the uterus here. We can see the bladder which is anterior, remember, to the uterus and to the vagina. And here we have the urethra and that is positioned anterior to the vagina which we can see it here.

    05:32 Now flanking either side of the vagina. We can see we have bulbospongiosus muscle and we have the bulb of the vestibule. And these are hanging from the perineal membrane.

    05:43 And once again above the perineal membrane we can see the deep perineal space we can see it here containing the deep perineal transverse muscle.

    05:53 And then superficial to the perinal membrane we can see the superficial perineal space. We can see it here containing those erectile tissues we can also see we have got the greater vestibular gland here as well.

    06:06 So similar diagram to what we saw in the male.

    06:09 I am trying to explore the boundaries of the perineum.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Female Perineum by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Pelvis.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Bulbospongiosus
    2. Ischiocavernosus
    3. Puborectalis
    4. Coccygeus
    5. Iliococcygeus
    1. Urethra
    2. The root of the clitoris
    3. Ischiocavernosus
    4. Bulbospongiosus
    5. Greater vestibular glands

    Author of lecture Female Perineum

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD

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