In this lecture we are going to look at
the branches of the internal iliac artery.
We are going to look at the branches that come
off this internal iliac artery which is a
branch itself from the common iliac. We will look at
the some divisions, the anterior and the posterior divisions.
And we will look at the visceral and the parietal
branches that supply the organs within the pelvis
and also the body wall,
the walls of the pelvis.
We will look at some specific organs, so
we'll look at the male reproductive organs,
and to the testes. We will look at the female
reproductive organs like the uterus and the vagina
and the specific branches that supply them.
And at the end we will look at the rectum
which has a complicated blood supply. And we
will start looking at the blood supply to it
with the upper, middle and lower
parts. But important, remember,
the rectum also with the anus
runs in the perineum and we will
look at that later on in the course.
So the main arterial supply to the pelvic viscera
is primarily from the internal iliac artery.
And this artery gives rise to
a complex and incredibly variable
network of arteries that supply
organs within the urinary,
reproductive and gastrointestinal systems.
Those systems that are located in the pelvis.
So if we look at the general
arrangement of the branches
of the internal iliac,
then on screen we can see
a hemisected pelvis which
has had the organs removed.
So we're just looking into a right hemisected pelvis.
You should be familiar with this view now. Here we have...
Here we have the posterior aspect.
Here we have the anterior aspect.
We can see we have got the sacrum,
we have got the 5th lumbar vertebrae here.
We have got the pubic symphysis. But the
bladder, the rectum, the uterus, the vagina
have all been removed.
And what should be remembered
is, that running down
through the abdomen was the abdominal
aorta giving rise to those unpaired
visceral branches that supply
the foregut, midgut and hindgut,
the coelic trunk, superior mesenteric
artery and inferior mesenteric artery.
And then as it entered into the pelvis,
the aorta which we can see here
bifurcated into two. It bifurcated into the
left, which we can see here that's been cut,
and the right common iliac artery and
this occurred at around about the level
of the 4th lumbar vertebrae so about here.
If we now just follow the right common
iliac which we can see running down here,
we see the right common iliac
itself divides into two.
It divides into an external
iliac and an internal iliac.
I will concentrate on the internal
iliac but its just worth remembering
that the external iliac passing
down in this direction
will go on to form the femoral
artery and supply the lower limb;
but also coming up from
the external iliac artery,
we have the inferior epigastric artery.
And remember the inferior epigastric artery
was important in providing arterial blood
to the muscles of the
anterior abdominal wall.
It would go onto anastomose with the
superior epigastric artery which was
a branch form internal thoracic
artery in the chest.
So try to remember that formation
of that collateral circulation
But let's just concentrate on
the internal iliac artery.
So here we can see the internal
iliac that's passing down
over the pelvic brim
into the pelvis.
And what we can see is that we
have a whole series of branches.
And in the cadaver these branching
patterns are incredibly variable.
But they do tend to divide themselves into
what's known as an anterior division
and the posterior division,
so let's have a look.