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Anterior Branches – Branches of Internal Iliac Artery

by James Pickering, PhD
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    00:01 The more complicated division is the anterior division.

    00:03 And we can see the anterior division is coming down in a more anterior direction.

    00:09 so we can see it coming down here.

    00:11 The anterior division will give rise to couple of arteries first of all.

    00:16 These being the umbilical and the obturator artery. If we follow the obturator artery around here, that is going to go and supply the medial compartment of the thigh.

    00:25 It supplies the medial compartment of the thigh and it exits the pelvis by passing through the obturator canal.

    00:32 That is an aperture in the obturator fascia which fills the obturator foramen. So we have got the obturator foramen here.

    00:41 We have a little deficit in this top corner here and that allows obturator artery to pass through. Also passing through the obturator nerve and obturator vein.

    00:51 And these going to supply the medial compartment of the thigh, the adductor compartment.

    00:57 We then have the umbilical artery. The umbilical artery is important as we were developing. As this returned blood back to the fetus, back to the placenta. If you remember that the fetus receive blood via the umbilical vein via the umbilical cord from the placenta which ran in the free edge of the falciform ligament.

    01:22 The blood then circulated through the fetus then returns to the placenta via these two umbilical arteries.

    01:33 And they then run up within the anterior abdominal wall.

    01:36 And you may remember when we looked at the anterior abdominal wall there were some ridges on the posterior surface of the anterior abdominal wall.

    01:44 If you look back you may remember the medial umbilical ligament.

    01:49 And that is where these umbilical arteries were running.

    01:54 Obviously when we are born, we loose that connection with the placenta and this umbilical artery becomes obliterated, it becomes fibrosed because blood no longer passes through it However, all of it doesn't become fibrous. And there is still a patent part, the patent portion of the umbilical artery that runs toward the bladder where it gives rise to these superior vesicle arteries.

    02:21 The superior vesicle arteries, here we can see the umbilical artery, that will become obliterated. But its giving rise to a 2, 3, 4 superior vesicle arteries. That run towards the top superior surface of the bladder. So this is an important artery, just be aware of the umbilical artery.

    02:42 We have two umbilical arteries. One coming here from the right and the other one on the left internal iliac. And they're in the fetus responsible for returning blood back to the placenta.

    02:54 When we're born, they become fibrosed but it doesn't all become fibrosed, not its enterity and superior vesicle arteries continue that pass to the bladder.

    03:06 Alongside having superior vesicle arteries we also have inferior vesicle artery in the male and that goes to supply the base of the artery; base of the bladder, I make a pardon.

    03:17 Inferior vesicle artery, its prostatic branches that supply the prostate. It'll also give rise to the artery to the ductus deferens, that runs alongside the ductus deferens.

    03:29 helping to supply it. In the female this inferior vesicle artery come be known as the vaginal artery and it passes towards the vagina.

    03:39 We can also see that we have a uterine artery and here in this diagram, you can see the uterine artery that's passing towards the uterus in the female.

    03:48 And this uterine artery may itself gives rise to a vaginal branch that helps to supply the vagina. We will look at these in more detail when we look at the blood supply to the female organs specifically.

    04:00 Males don't, obviously, have uterine arteries. They don't have a uterus.

    04:04 We can then see that we have a few more arteries which can be quite variable in position or they may not actually occur.

    04:11 For example, here we have got a middle rectal artery. This is only present in about 60% of the population.

    04:19 Not everyone has a middle rectal artery. We have a superior rectal artery.

    04:24 And we have an inferior rectal artery which we will see later.

    04:26 And these will form an anastomosis that may be sufficient.

    04:31 But about 60% of the population will also find a middle rectal artery.

    04:37 The final two really are the bifurcating end of the internal iliac artery where it terminates. And importantly both of these leave the pelvis by passing inferior to piriformis and pass out via the greater sciatic foramen.

    04:55 Now, this is a really complicated but important part of this pathway of this internal iliac artery.

    05:05 These arteries leave the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen. We can see them here. This is the greater sciatic foramen. Here we have got piriformis muscle. And we see that superior gluteal left through the greater sciatic foramen superior to piriformis.

    05:24 Internal pudendal and inferior gluteal will also leave through the greater sciatic foramen where they are going to leave inferior to piriformis. So in the cadaver, if you are struggling to locate these arteries, find piriformis, above would tend to be the superior gluteal; and below will be inferior gluteal and internal pudendal.

    05:47 Now the inferior gluteal will go to the gluteal region and supply the muscles of the buttock, gluteus; medius gluteus, minimus gluteus, maximus go and supply that region.

    06:00 Whereas internal pudendal will go to supply the perineum.

    06:04 And we will look at this in more detail when we look at the perineum. But we have is inferior gluteal passing out to the gluteal region.

    06:14 And internal pudendal actually hooking around this structure here which is the ischial spine; and connecting to the sacrum where we have the sacrospinous ligament.

    06:28 It will hook around this structure and actually enter into the perineum by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen, this foramen here.

    06:40 So we can see the internal pudendal artery leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen. It then enters the perineum which is located underneath the pelvic floor by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen.

    07:00 We will look at that when we look at the perineum in more detail


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Anterior Branches – Branches of Internal Iliac Artery by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Pelvis.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Obturator
    2. Femoral
    3. Umbilical
    4. Inferior gluteal
    5. Profunda femoris
    1. Inferior vesical artery
    2. Superior vesical artery
    3. Artery to the ductus deferens
    4. Umbilical artery
    5. Prostatic artery
    1. Lesser sciatic foramen
    2. Greater sciatic foramen
    3. Obturator foramen
    4. Adductor canal
    5. Sacral hiatus
    1. Inferior vesical artery
    2. Inferior rectal artery
    3. Superior rectal artery
    4. Umbilical artery

    Author of lecture Anterior Branches – Branches of Internal Iliac Artery

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD


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