Vasculature of the Stomach – Esophagus and Stomach

by James Pickering, PhD

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    00:00 In order for stomach to work, it needs to have oxygen to make the cells work, so they can respire, create energy, so they can carry out their function.

    00:07 And it also needs to have venous drainage so we are going to look at the vasculature of the stomach. And importantly you just need to remember again, the lesser curvature and the greater curvature, running around the right and the left borders of the stomach. So we can see that if we concentrate on the lesser curvature, we have two what are known as the gastric blood vessels. The left and the right gastric blood vessels. These come either directly or indirectly from an important blood vessel knows as Coeliac Trunk.

    00:44 And we'll cover this in later lectures where we'll look holistically at all of the blood vessels at once, because it makes more sense that way. But individually, running along the lesser curvature, we finally have the left gastric artery and we finally have the right gastric artery. And these arteries will form a complete circuit along this lesser curvature the two gastric arteries. We can then see with this greater curvature, we have two more blood vessels. We have the left gastro-omental and the right gastro-omental and these are going to be coming in this direction and this direction, right and left gastro-omental arteries and again these will join to form a circuit around this greater curvature. So how can you remember your greater curvature and your lesser curvature, vasculature or gastric is a short word short word gastric for the lesser curvature, the small of the two curvature. Gastro-omental is a longer word and that runs around the longer, greater curvature. You can also see we have some short gastric blood vessels that supply the fundus and these come off the splenic artery, which we will see later on. The venous drainage mirrors the arterial supply. So if you are happy with the arterial supply and then just convert the word "artery" to vein and you will have gastric-vein and you will have gastro-omental vein.

    02:14 These pass back to the liver via what’s known as the portal system. And then again we'll cover that in more detail. So this is the vasculature of the stomach. We'll also need to look at how the stomach activity is controlled and to do that we'll look at the nerve supply. I am sure some of you are familiar with the autonomic nervous system. This is the part of nervous system that we are not consciously in control of, not like the somatic nervous system which controls the skeletal muscles that allows me to contract the biceps. The autonomic nervous system is ticking over all of the time. And we can see here in purple and in green, we have two different parts of it, we have parasympathetic and the sympathetic. And now for the stomach its activity is controlled by the autonomic innervation.

    03:03 And increases of it activity are controlled via the parasympathetic nervous system, this increases activity. This will increase the rate of peristalsis, increase the production of acid, the release of pepsinogen. And it's controlled by the main parasympathetic nerve of the body, the Vagus Nerve. This enters into the abdomen; the vagus nerve starts high up in the neck at the base of the brain from the region called the medulla and it passes down the thorax enters the abdomen via the oesophageal hiatus and then it spreads over the surface of the stomach.

    03:44 It also gives branches to what’s known as Coeliac Plexus. And we'll cover that in a later class because that controls other parts of the abdominal viscera.

    03:52 So this vagus nerve controls the activity of the stomach. It really increases the activity, once you had dinner, you sit down in your lounge or do any kind of activity, the digestion of the food is controlled by the parasympathetic via the vagus nerve.

    04:10 If you are on an activity to go down, if you do an activity that don't really require your stomach to work that heavy, that's why the sympathetic division, okay? The sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system dumping down the activity of the stomach.

    04:27 And this is why the nerve called the greater splanchnic nerve. And we'll look at the splanchnic nerves again in the greater detail when we'll cover the nerve supply which we can see here.

    04:36 The autonomic nerves are going to be covered in more detail in lecture 20, so don't worry too much right now.

    04:41 If you are not quite fully comfortable with these, we'll go over in great detail in our last lecture of this abdomino-pelvic series.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Vasculature of the Stomach – Esophagus and Stomach by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Abdomen.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Liver
    2. Pancreas
    3. Kidney
    4. Spleen
    5. Transverse mesocolon
    1. Fundus
    2. Pylorus
    3. Body
    4. Antrum
    1. Gastro-omental
    2. Left Omental
    3. Right gastric
    4. Left gastric
    1. Vagus
    2. Glossopharyngeal
    3. Trigeminal
    4. Abducent
    5. Hypoglossal
    1. Splenic artery
    2. Hepatic artery
    3. Gastroduodenal artery
    4. Right gastric artery
    5. Right gastro-omental artery

    Author of lecture Vasculature of the Stomach – Esophagus and Stomach

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD

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