I’m now going to turn to a number
of examples of autoimmune diseases.
And you may be wondering, well what are
the most common autoimmune diseases?
Well actually there are hundreds
of different autoimmune diseases.
But listed here are the ones
with the highest prevalence.
These are typical prevalence, they
will vary in different populations
depending on the genetic makeup of different ethnicities.
They also vary somewhat-- where
you’re living in the world.
But these are kind of typical prevalences
for these types of autoimmune disease.
So Grave’s disease which is a hyperthyroidism, the
autoimmune process leads to a overactive thyroid gland.
About one in a hundred individuals
develop Grave’s disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis which involves
the inflammation of joints, about 0.9% of individuals.
Hashimoto’s disease which is also
a disease affecting the thyroid
gland just like Grave’s disease, but
actually has the opposite effect.
It’s a destructive thyroiditis, an inflammation of the
thyroid, leads to hypothyroidism - an underactive thyroid.
And this occurs in around about 0.5%
As I said, these figures,
they’re just ball park figures.
They’ll vary a little bit in different studies
and between different groups of people.
Sjogren’s syndrome leads to reduced
secretory gland function, occurs in about 0.4% of individuals.
Pernicious anemia which is vitamin B12
deficient anemia, in around about 0.2%
Multiple sclerosis which
results in demyelination - 0.1%
Ankylosing spondylitis which we’re
mentioning a couple minutes ago
causes inflammation of the spine
and sacroiliatic joints, about 0.1% of individuals suffer
from ankylosing spondylitis.
Type I diabetes leading to
hyperglycemia, again around about 0.1% of individuals.
And systemic lupus erythematosus
which can have multiple consequences
affecting the skin, heart, joints, lungs, kidney and brain.
Again around about 0.1%
of people as a rough ball
park figure suffer from SLE.
Looking at some of the target organs and tissues of
autoimmune diseases, erythrocytes or platelets are
affected in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in pernicious
anemia and in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Kidneys and lungs in
Endocrine glands in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,
in Grave’s disease and in type I diabetes.
The first two of those affecting the thyroid gland
and type I diabetes of course affecting the pancreas.
The musculoskeletal system is affected in rheumatoid arthritis
and in an autoimmune condition called acute rheumatic fever.
Multiple tissues and organs are affected
in systemic lupus erythematosus;
as its name suggests, systemic -
it affects the whole of the body.
The nervous system in multiple sclerosis,
Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis.
And the GI tract in celiac disease.