Lectures

Autoimmune Diseases: Types

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    00:01 I’m now going to turn to a number of examples of autoimmune diseases.

    00:08 And you may be wondering, well what are the most common autoimmune diseases? Well actually there are hundreds of different autoimmune diseases.

    00:15 But listed here are the ones with the highest prevalence.

    00:20 These are typical prevalence, they will vary in different populations depending on the genetic makeup of different ethnicities. They also vary somewhat-- where you’re living in the world. But these are kind of typical prevalences for these types of autoimmune disease. So Grave’s disease which is a hyperthyroidism, the autoimmune process leads to a overactive thyroid gland. About one in a hundred individuals develop Grave’s disease. Rheumatoid arthritis which involves the inflammation of joints, about 0.9% of individuals.

    00:57 Hashimoto’s disease which is also a disease affecting the thyroid gland just like Grave’s disease, but actually has the opposite effect.

    01:07 It’s a destructive thyroiditis, an inflammation of the thyroid, leads to hypothyroidism - an underactive thyroid.

    01:14 And this occurs in around about 0.5% of individuals. As I said, these figures, they’re just ball park figures. They’ll vary a little bit in different studies and between different groups of people. Sjogren’s syndrome leads to reduced secretory gland function, occurs in about 0.4% of individuals.

    01:33 Pernicious anemia which is vitamin B12 deficient anemia, in around about 0.2% of individuals. Multiple sclerosis which results in demyelination - 0.1% Ankylosing spondylitis which we’re mentioning a couple minutes ago causes inflammation of the spine and sacroiliatic joints, about 0.1% of individuals suffer from ankylosing spondylitis. Type I diabetes leading to hyperglycemia, again around about 0.1% of individuals.

    02:05 And systemic lupus erythematosus which can have multiple consequences affecting the skin, heart, joints, lungs, kidney and brain. Again around about 0.1% of people as a rough ball park figure suffer from SLE.

    02:21 Looking at some of the target organs and tissues of autoimmune diseases, erythrocytes or platelets are affected in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in pernicious anemia and in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    02:37 Kidneys and lungs in Goodpasture’s syndrome.

    02:42 Endocrine glands in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, in Grave’s disease and in type I diabetes.

    02:49 The first two of those affecting the thyroid gland and type I diabetes of course affecting the pancreas.

    02:54 The musculoskeletal system is affected in rheumatoid arthritis and in an autoimmune condition called acute rheumatic fever.

    03:03 Multiple tissues and organs are affected in systemic lupus erythematosus; as its name suggests, systemic - it affects the whole of the body.

    03:13 The nervous system in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and myasthenia gravis.

    03:19 And the GI tract in celiac disease.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Autoimmune Diseases: Types by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune Disease. It contains the following chapters:

    • Overview of the Major Autoimmune Diseases
    • Some Target Organs and Tissues of Autoimmune Diseases

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Rheumatoid arthritis
    2. Multiple sclerosis
    3. Type I diabetes
    4. Systemic lupus erythematosus
    5. Ankylosing spondylitis
    1. Graves disease- hypothyroidism
    2. Multiple sclerosis- demyelination
    3. Type I diabetes- hyperglycemia
    4. Pernicious anemia- Vitamin B12 deficient anemia
    5. Sjorgrens syndrome- decreased secretory gland function
    1. Myasthenia gravis
    2. Celiac Disease
    3. Type I diabetes
    4. Goodpasture's syndrome
    5. Acute rheumatic fever

    Author of lecture Autoimmune Diseases: Types

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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