Respiratory Disorders

by Jeremy Brown, PhD

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    So the subject of this lecture are respiratory physiology disorders. What we're going to talk about in this lecture is type I and type II respiratory failure, the differences between them and how they should be treated. A little bit about respiratory acid-based disorders, and then we are going to move on to talk about a specific cause of type I respiratory failure, the adult respiratory distressed syndrome,ARDS and also type II, causes of type II respiratory failure which affect lung ventilation but actually the lungs are normal and that's mainly obstructive sleep apnea with some discussion of obesity hypoventilation and chest wall and muscle disease. An important point is that ventilatory diseases, which cause chronic respiratory failure, are usually worse at night with worse physiological parameters overnight and first thing in the morning. Right, so type I respiratory failure, this is respiratory failure with hypoxia alone, normal PaCO2, but a PaO2, which is, less than 8 no matter what the inspired oxygen concentration is. Now this is often an acute one-off event but it can also be a complication of chronic lung diseases, largely COPD. What's the treatment? Well it depends on the cause, somebody comes in with pneumonia and hypoxia as a consequence of type I respiratory failure, you clearly treat that pneumonia, somebody comes has COPD, you treat the COPD. But the discussion that we are going to have today is really about oxygen, and how we use oxygen in patients with type I respiratory failure. And, essentially, the problem is how to correct the hypoxia, and we can use as much oxygen as much as it is necessary in these circumstances, and we give the oxygen normally in a controlled fashion, so we know what percentage inhaled oxygen the patient is receiving, so we use venturi...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Respiratory Disorders by Jeremy Brown, PhD is from the course Respiratory Medicine (Pulmonology): Advanced. It contains the following chapters:

    • Disorders of respiratory physiology
    • Adult respiratory distress disorders
    • Patterns of acid-base disorders
    • Type 2 respiratory failure - treatment
    • Obstructive sleep apnoea
    • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
    • Chest wall and muscle disease

    Quiz for lecture

    Test your knowledge with our quiz for lecture Respiratory Disorders.

    1. PaO2 7.5 PaCO2 5.3
    2. PaO2 7.5 PaCO2 6.3
    3. PaO2 8.5 PaCO2 5.3
    4. PaO2 8.5 PaCO2 6.3
    1. Raised pulmonary venous pressure
    2. Bilateral shadowing on the chest X ray
    3. Marked hypoxia
    4. An obvious potential preceding cause
    1. Pneumonia
    2. Respiratory muscle diosrders
    3. Overdose of opiate
    4. Obesity hypoventilation
    1. PaO2 7.5 PaCO2 8.4 pH 7.15 HCO3- 25 BE +1
    2. PaO2 12.5 PaCO2 3.4 pH 7.15 HCO3- 15 BE -5
    3. PaO2 7.5 PaCO2 8.4 pH 7.28 HCO3- 35 BE +7
    4. PaO2 12.5 PaCO2 3.3 pH 7.49 HCO3- 15 BE +1
    1. More common in men
    2. Associated with obesity
    3. Can cause type 2 respiratory failure
    4. Physiological disturbance is worse at night

    Author of lecture Respiratory Disorders

     Jeremy Brown, PhD

    Jeremy Brown, PhD

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