Oral Cavity and Pharynx – Esophagus and Stomach

by James Pickering, PhD

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    00:00 Let’s start with oral cavity and obviously it is about the oesophagus and the stomach. But let's start with the oral cavity. We have got the oral cavity here. We can see the tongue so food is coming in this direction. While the teeth are going to be chewing or breaking down this food into ever smaller portion. And we can see in the oral cavity, this process of cutting and chewing, this mechanical digestion has started. It mixes with saliva along with the chemical digestion to start as well. And then chewing... the process of swallowing this food is passed into the pharynx which we can see here.

    00:40 Remember I said the trachea is anterior? So here we got the neck so we can see the trachea was anteriorly and directly behind the trachea we see the oesophagus which is running down in this direction. So the food is converted to this bolus which is swallowed into the oesophagus via the pharynx.

    00:58 It's then going to descend through the thorax and pierces the diaphragm. And for food to pass down through this oesophagus.

    01:07 The muscular walls of this oesophagus contracts and peristalsis carries that food inferiorly.

    01:15 So here we have got an another view of the oesophagus and its position within the thorax ends. We can see anteriorly that it’s impossible to see the oesophagus with the heart in position and here we have highlighted in this anterior view, the position of where the oesophagus would be. If we look at the posterior view, then we can see the diaphragm here. We can see the outline of the posterior aspect of the heart here, sitting on the diaphragm.

    01:44 Now we can see this large blood vessel here, that is the aorta.

    01:48 Now we can see running inferiorly down, we have our oesophagus.

    01:53 It is running directly behind the posterior surface of the heart.

    01:57 And then it's going to enter into the abdomen by passing through the diaphragm. And it passes through the diaphragm, that we will come to see, at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebrae we can see that here. If we just briefly look at the blood supply to the oseophagus, this really comes from the esophageal branches directly from the aorta.

    02:19 The aorta is running alongside the oesophagus in the thorax and small branches comes away from the aorta to supply the oesophasgus which we can see here. The oesophagus then pierces through the diaphragm that what I said it was the 10th thoracic vertebral level and then it quickly joins into the stomach, the esophageal-cardiac junction and this occurs above the 11th thoracic vertebral level.

    02:47 So we can see the oesophagus we have in the throax penetrating the diaphragm into the abdomen to then be continuous with the stomach.

    02:56 So here we can see that in more detail. We can see we have the diaphragm here, we have got slightly elevated diaphragm right down the slightly elevated on the right because of the liver and we can see that its going through the diaphragm we have three important apertures. We have one for the inferior vena cava that sort of caval opening that occurs at the level of T8. We then have the aorta that passes through the diaphragm then we got the thoracic aorta passing through the diaphragm passing through this inferior view we can see at here aorta passing through, this occurs at T12 level, at the 12th thoracic vertebra. Here is our caval opening occuring at T10, sorry the T8 thoracic vertebral level. And then we can see we have got all oesophageal hiatus which enables the oesophagus to pass through and that occurs at T10, the level of 10th thoracic vertebra. So we have inferior vena cava at T8, oesophagus T10, aorta.

    03:59 So the inferior vena cava T8 the oesophagus at T10 and the aorta at T12.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Oral Cavity and Pharynx – Esophagus and Stomach by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Abdomen.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. T10
    2. T6
    3. T8
    4. T12
    1. Left atrium
    2. Right atrium
    3. Right ventricle
    4. Left ventricle
    5. Apex
    1. T12
    2. T10
    3. T9
    4. T8
    5. T11
    1. Aorta
    2. Subclavian
    3. Common carotid
    4. Brachiocephalic
    5. Vertebral

    Author of lecture Oral Cavity and Pharynx – Esophagus and Stomach

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD

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    By Andrea M. on 13. October 2019 for Oral Cavity and Pharynx – Esophagus and Stomach


    organized and understandable lecturers
    By Jonacy D. on 19. October 2018 for Oral Cavity and Pharynx – Esophagus and Stomach

    The lectures were understandable and well organized presentation. Though few questions were asked, it help students recall things that had been thought. Furthermore, the presentation is separated into regions and it doesn't confuse the students.