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Nephrotic Syndrome

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Nephrotic Syndrome by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Glomerulonephritis. It contains the following chapters:

    • Nephrotic Syndrome
    • Minimal Change Disease
    • Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
    • Membranous Glomerulonephritis

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Pathology may be visualized with electron microscopy.
    2. Edema is the result of increased hydrostatic pressure with normal oncotic pressures.
    3. Glomerular injury is primarily due to cytokines
    4. Negative immunofluorescence.
    5. Structurally normal glomeruli.
    1. Hypergammaglobulinemia
    2. Hypoalbuminemia
    3. Generalized pitting edema
    4. Hypercholesterolemia
    5. Hypercoagulability
    1. “Maltese-cross” casts
    2. “Coffin-lid” shaped crystals
    3. Waxy, broad casts
    4. RBC casts
    5. Hexagonal crystals
    1. Antithrombin III
    2. Albumin
    3. Cholesterol
    4. Gamma globulins
    5. von Willebrand factor
    1. Reed Sternberg cells
    2. Hypergammaglobulinemia
    3. Spontaneous peritonitis
    4. Bleeding diathesis
    5. Hypereosinophilia
    1. T cell cytokines
    2. Neutrophils
    3. C3
    4. IgM
    5. IgA
    1. Clear vacuoles in tubules with H&E stain
    2. Normal appearance with electron microscopy
    3. Linear pattern on immunofluorescence
    4. Granular pattern on immunofluorescence
    5. Fusion of podocytes on light microscopy
    1. Bleeding diathesis
    2. Hypercholesterolemia
    3. Polyuria
    4. Spontaneous peritonitis
    5. Weight gain
    1. Hypogammaglobulinemia
    2. Hypoalbuminemia
    3. Negative immunofluorescence
    4. Hypercholesterolemia
    5. Hyperalbuminuria
    1. Diabetes mellitus
    2. Older age
    3. Obesity
    4. Sickle cell disease
    5. HIV infection
    1. All answers are correct.
    2. Negative immunofluorescence
    3. Mesangial hypercellularity on light microscopy
    4. No pathology on electron microscopy
    5. Damage of visceral epithelial cells on electron microscopy
    1. Hypertension is a defining feature.
    2. Only 15-20% of patients respond to corticosteroids.
    3. African Americans have a genetic propensity for this pathology.
    4. It is often a primary glomerular disease in the elderly.
    5. It is the most common glomerular disease in HIV patients.
    1. Thickened glomerular basement membrane on light microscopy.
    2. Hypercellularity of mesangium on light microscopy.
    3. Subepithelial deposits on electron microscopy.
    4. Effacement of foot processes on electron microscopy.
    5. Granular pattern on immunoflueorescence.
    1. It has a low incidence in young adults and teenagers.
    2. It is the most common cause of nephrotic syndromes in Caucasian adults.
    3. It often progresses to end stage renal disease.
    4. It represents glomerular disease in 10% of patients with SLE.
    5. It rarely responds to steroid treatment.
    1. Effacement of foot processes on electron microscopy.
    2. Proliferation of parietal epithelial cells on light microscopy.
    3. Sclerosis of glomeruli on light microscopy.
    4. Linear pattern on immunofluorescence.
    5. Subendothelial deposits on electron microscopy.
    1. Renal vein thrombosis
    2. End stage renal disease
    3. Bleeding diathesis
    4. Renal artery thrombosis
    5. Unrelated complication
    1. HIV
    2. Hepatitis
    3. Malaria
    4. Schistosomiasis
    5. Syphilis

    Author of lecture Nephrotic Syndrome

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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