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The Macromolecules of Life 1

by Georgina Cornwall, PhD
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    About the Lecture

    The lecture The Macromolecules of Life 1 by Georgina Cornwall, PhD is from the course The Macromolecules of Life. It contains the following chapters:

    • How macromolecules come together
    • Hydrolysis Reactions
    • Glucose
    • Polysaccharides

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. C and H
    2. C and N
    3. C and S
    4. C and P
    5. C and He
    1. Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic acids and Lipids
    2. Alcohols, Esters, Ketones, and Hydrocarbons
    3. Oleic acid, Lactose, Nucleotides, and Peptides
    4. Starch, DNA, RNA, and Enzymes
    5. Glycogen, Starch, Linoleic acid and RNA
    1. Phosphate group ----- Carbohydrates
    2. Sulfhydryl group ----- Proteins
    3. Phosphate group ----- Nucleic acids
    4. Amino group ----- Proteins
    5. Hydroxyl group ----- Carbohydrates
    1. Glycerol ---- Lipids
    2. Nucleotide ---- Nucleic acids
    3. Glucose ---- Starch
    4. Amino acid ---- Proteins
    5. Glucose ---- Glycogen
    1. Lipids are polymeric macromolecules composed of repeated units of palmitic acid molecules.
    2. Lipids are non-polymer macromolecules.
    3. Lipids are an important part of the cellular membrane structure.
    4. Myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid are predominant fatty acids in the mammalian lipids.
    5. Lipids consist of three fatty acid tails tied together with one glycerol molecule.
    1. …dehydration or polymerization reaction to create a polymer.
    2. …hydrolysis reaction to breaking the heavy units of a polymer.
    3. …depolymerization reaction.
    4. …an oxidation reaction.
    5. …hydration process.
    1. The dehydration synthesis process occurring in the living cells is a perfect example of dehydration synthesis.
    2. During catabolism, the polymer macromolecule is broken down to the monomer units.
    3. The catabolic reactions are the energy generating reactions.
    4. Cellular respiration falls under the category of catabolic reactions.
    5. In catabolic reactions, the hydrolysis of water facilitates the depolymerization of polysaccharides.
    1. …energy storage molecules and structural components of cellular structures.
    2. …enzymes in metabolic reactions.
    3. …they form protein molecules after polymerization.
    4. …they get covalently attached to glycerol molecule to form lipid molecules.
    5. …they facilitate the protein synthesis by acting as an enzyme.
    1. Fructose ----- Disaccharide sugar
    2. Glyceraldehyde ----- Simplest monosaccharide
    3. Ribose ----- 5-Carbon sugar
    4. Deoxyribose ----- Nucleic acid component
    5. Glucose ----- Primary cell fuel
    1. Glucose is the only sugar which is represented by the molecular formula C6H12O6.
    2. Fructose and glucose monosaccharides are structural isomers of each other.
    3. Glucose acts as primary cell fuel and energy storage molecule in the living cells.
    4. Glucose can polymerize with itself or other monosaccharides to form di-, tri- and polysaccharide molecules.
    5. Glucose and galactose are two stereoisomers sharing their molecular formula with each other.
    1. …a glycosidic bond during the dehydration synthesis.
    2. …a polypeptide bond during the hydration process.
    3. …a phosphodiester bond during the integration process.
    4. …an ionic bond during the nucleophilic attack of protons.
    5. …a hydrogen bond during the dehydration synthesis process.
    1. Cellobiose ---- Galactose and Galactose
    2. Sucrose ---- Glucose and Fructose
    3. Lactose ---- Galactose and Glucose
    4. Maltose ---- Glucose and Glucose
    5. Trehalose ---- Glucose and Glucose
    1. …composed of glucose and galactose and is specifically broken down by lactase enzyme.
    2. …composed of glucose and sucrose and is non-specifically broken down by protease enzymes.
    3. …composed of galactose and sucrose and is non-specifically broken down by protease enzymes.
    4. …composed of maltose and sucrose and is specifically broken down by lactase enzymes.
    5. …composed of two galactose units and is specifically broken down by protease enzymes.
    1. Hydrolysis, dehydration synthesis
    2. dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis
    1. monosaccharides, covalent bonds called glycosidic linkages
    2. monosaccharides, ionic bonds called glycosidic linkages
    3. glycerol, linked by covalent bonds called glycosidic linkages
    4. glycerol linked by ionic bonds called glycosidic linkages
    1. We do not have the enzyme necessary to break the Beta 1,4 glycosidic linkage that holds the individual glucose molecules together.
    2. We could, it just doesn't have a great texture.
    3. In adulthood we no longer produce the enzymes necessary to break the Beta 1,4 glycosidic linkage that holds the individual glucose molecules together.
    1. Glycogen is a structural polysaccharide which provides strength to the algal cell walls.
    2. Glycogen acts as an energy storage molecule in liver and muscles of human beings.
    3. Glycogen is highly complex and branched polymer of glucose.
    4. Glycogen is composed of α-glucose units joined by α (1→4) glycosidic bonds and α (1→6) glycosidic bonds at branched points.
    5. During exercise, the glycogen stored in skeleton muscles is utilized to produce energy.
    1. …β (1→4) glycosidic bonds.
    2. … α (1→4) glycosidic bonds.
    3. …α (1→6) glycosidic bonds.
    4. …β (1→6) glycosidic bonds.
    5. …β (1→1) glycosidic bonds.
    1. Cellulose helps in the smooth functioning of the intestinal track by acting as fiber.
    2. Cellulose helps in the secretion of gastric juices by stimulating the gastric glands.
    3. Cellulose aids in the secretion of intestinal enzymes by stimulating the intestinal glands.
    4. Cellulose acts as a cofactor to activate the salivary amylase.
    5. Cellulose acts as a stimulator to start the flow of bile from the gall bladder.
    1. Humans gastric enzymes can easily break down the chitin into glucose units.
    2. Chitin is a polymer of a glucose derivative known as N-acetylglucosamine.
    3. Chitin is a primary component of exoskeletons of crustaceans like crabs, lobsters, and shrimp.
    4. Humans can not digest chitin due to the lack of specific digestive enzymes.
    5. Chitin provides strength and integrity to the cell wall of fungal cell walls.

    Author of lecture The Macromolecules of Life 1

     Georgina Cornwall, PhD

    Georgina Cornwall, PhD


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