Lectures

Heart Sounds

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    Welcome to our cardiovascular heart sounds. Here is a lot to talk about, so let us get started. To begin with, what is the heart sound? Rememeber, heart sounds are only created by closure or opening? Closure, all of the time. Anytime that you have these valves are open, they don't ever create a heart sound. Is that clear? It must be understood for us to then continue. What then happens to a valve when it becomes narrowed? We will take a look at what may then happen if the valve becomes narrowed versus what happens when it becomes expanded. And each one is then going to give us different types of heart sounds and then eventually we are going to get into the different locations anatomically around our chest in which it's going to then give us clues as to diagnosis of our patient. And that will be fun, you will see. If the valve is expanded, the root of the valve, for example, we talk about congestive heart failure and tell me about their heart. When you're looking at this heart on x-ray, I want you to close your eyes and think about as such. There you have it. There's a chest x-ray and now you find the apex, which is laterally displaced and normally should be at the fifth intercostal space, midclavicular. But with congestive heart failure, you might find apex, which is now laterally displaced and maybe midaxillary. Not sign of good, that is a bad sign. With that expansion of that heart is it possible that the valves and the root then become expanded? Of course. And would it make any sense for it become smaller? And so, therefore, when you do have such expansion of the root, then you would have what kind of...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Heart Sounds by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Heart Sounds. It contains the following chapters:

    • Definitions
    • Heart Sounds: S1 and S2
    • Heart Sounds: S3 and S4
    • Dynamic Auscultation
    • Respiratory Variation in Heart Sounds
    • Auscultation Areas
    • Rapid Squatting

    Author of lecture Heart Sounds

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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