Heart Sounds: Definitions

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    00:02 Welcome to our cardiovascular heart sounds. Here is a lot to talk about, so let us get started.

    00:08 To begin with, what is the heart sound? Rememeber, heart sounds are only created by closure or opening? Closure, all of the time. Anytime that you have these valves are open, they don't ever create a heart sound. Is that clear? It must be understood for us to then continue. What then happens to a valve when it becomes narrowed? We will take a look at what may then happen if the valve becomes narrowed versus what happens when it becomes expanded. And each one is then going to give us different types of heart sounds and then eventually we are going to get into the different locations anatomically around our chest in which it's going to then give us clues as to diagnosis of our patient. And that will be fun, you will see. If the valve is expanded, the root of the valve, for example, we talk about congestive heart failure and tell me about their heart. When you're looking at this heart on x-ray, I want you to close your eyes and think about as such. There you have it. There's a chest x-ray and now you find the apex, which is laterally displaced and normally should be at the fifth intercostal space, midclavicular. But with congestive heart failure, you might find apex, which is now laterally displaced and maybe midaxillary. Not sign of good, that is a bad sign. With that expansion of that heart is it possible that the valves and the root then become expanded? Of course. And would it make any sense for it become smaller? And so, therefore, when you do have such expansion of the root, then you would have what kind of flow? You would have a flow that perhaps would be regurgitative, so, therefore, flowing backward.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Heart Sounds: Definitions by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Heart Sounds.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. They are caused due to the opening of heart valves.
    2. They are caused due to the closure of heart valves.
    3. Stenosis murmurs occur due to the narrowing of a valve, which prevents it from opening completely.
    4. Regurgitation murmurs can only occur when the valve is not completely closed.
    5. Murmur is produced either by blood flow across an abnormal valve or by increased blood flow across a normal valve.

    Author of lecture Heart Sounds: Definitions

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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    the best
    By Akram A. on 20. October 2021 for Heart Sounds: Definitions

    love the way he explains stuff, a bit funny but in a serious way

    By Megan B. on 26. January 2018 for Heart Sounds: Definitions

    Love Dr. Raj, he is my favorite. His lectures are a great mixture of information and questions

    One of the best !
    By Carmen R. on 02. July 2017 for Heart Sounds: Definitions

    Dr. Raj not only defines the concepts very well but I especially love the way he goes into details about what is happening with our patients, giving us real life examples to remember.