the spermatic cord in the male. This is important
because as these structures pass through,
as I mentioned previously, they take a covering
with them and we can see that on this diagram
here. Here, we have the testes and we can
see that they have passed through. This diagram
indicates the superficial inguinal ring here
and we can see it’s passed through the superficial
inguinal ring. Up here, we can see we have
got the deep inguinal ring that is lying lateral
to inferior epigastric blood vessels and this
diagram’s depicting the canal as being in
this kind of region here, this region from
between the superficial and the deep inguinal
rings. If we look at the other side of the
diagram which we can see in more detail here,
we can see how the ductus deference, which
is here, if we follow that all the way back
up, this is originating from the testes...
originating from the testes which would have
migrated through the anterior abdominal wall,
lateral to the epigastric blood vessels, would
have migrated in this direction. As assumed,
coverings related to the structures it passed
through and what this forms is the spermatic
cord that surrounds those structures I mentioned
a moment ago. So, let’s have a look. We
can see we have transversalis fascia, we have
transversus abdominis, we have internal oblique
and we have external oblique. Now, we have
4 layers. Remember those four layers that
form the antero abdominal wall. Importantly,
remember the only three of those layers had
the testes penetrating through them. The one
that it didn’t penetrate through was transversus
abdominis, was this one. Remember that just
formed the roof of the inguinal canal, it
didn’t actually... the testes didn’t actually
pass through it, the testes passed through
the other three. So, let’s have a look.
Here, we imagine the testes are coming through
in this direction. So, the first landmark
they see or the first landmark they come across,
they engage with, is transversalis fascia.
So, we can now see the transversalis fascia
has a layer taken all the way around the testes.
This transversalis fascia becomes the internal
spermatic fascia, the internal spermatic fascia,
the deepest of the fascial layers that forms
the spermatic cord.
Superficial to transversalis fascia or anterior
to transversalis fascia, we have
transversus abdominis where the testes didn’t
penetrate that. The next anterior or most
superficial layer that the testes penetrated
was internal oblique. So, here, we can see
internal oblique and that’s also running
down in this direction. Internal oblique is
muscular. So, it carries these muscle fibers
and these muscle fibers extend around the
internal spermatic fascia and this becomes
the cremasteric fascia or cremaster
muscle. This muscle’s really important.
Contraction of this muscle will elevate
the testes closer to the body to help retain
their temperature, cremaster muscle.
That forms the middle layer of the spermatic cord.
The final layer that the testes penetrated
as they made their way through the abdominal
wall was external oblique and here, we can
see external oblique and that also forms an
outer layer and that layer is the external
spermatic fascia. The testes penetrated through
the anterior abdominal wall, transversalis
fascia, internal oblique aponeurosis and its
muscle fibers and also, external oblique.
And as the testes migrated into the scrotum,
they retained those coverings which then went
on to surround the spermatic cord. External
spermatic fascia, external oblique, cremasteric
fascia with muscle, internal oblique and internal
spermatic fascia, transversalis fascia and
we can see those in this diagram.