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Verstibular Disorders: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, Vertigo and Ménière's Disease

by Craig Canby, PhD
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    00:00 Now we’ll take a look at three different vestibular disorders.

    00:06 We’ll take a look first at Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    00:13 Then we'll look at vertigo.

    00:15 And then we’ll finish up with a brief discussion about Meniere’s disease.

    00:22 So, first, Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, First thing for you to understand is that this is the most common form of vertigo.

    00:37 Individuals with this form of vertigo have sudden onset of episodes.

    00:44 However, this episodes of dizziness are of short duration.

    00:52 Certain head positions or movements will trigger or prompt a given episode in individuals that have this disorder.

    01:04 What causes this condition? We’ll it all relates to the macula.

    01:12 Where we have the macula shown in through here of the utricle or saccule.

    01:19 And the macula has embedded in it, this otoconia.

    01:29 And in the case of this condition, it is the otoconia in the utricle that get dislodged and when they become dislodged they migrate into one of the semi- circular canals that we see over here in this smaller image.

    01:48 So, here’s a semi-circular canal here for example.

    01:51 And another one here and then in our third semi-circular canal are shown into there.

    01:56 So, in otoconia they become dislodge and get into one of those semi- circular canals.

    02:02 And when they get there they disrupt normal fluid movement within a semi-circular canal.

    02:09 And this will send false signals in the vestibular system causing this episodes of dizziness.

    02:21 The second vestibular disorder that I want you to understand is that vertigo.

    02:26 And we’ll walk through several of this symptoms associated with vertigo in this table.

    02:37 Individuals with vertigo may complain of spinning sensation.

    02:42 They may complain that they are tilting because of the disruption of the vestibular apparatus, and the sensing of false signals.

    02:54 They may feel that they are swaying.

    02:58 As a result of this, they may feel very often that they’re off balanced or unbalanced.

    03:05 And they tend to pull to one direction because of this impairment of the vestibular apparatus.

    03:13 There are several different causes of vertigo.

    03:16 You can have an inflammation of vestibular nerve or inflammation of the vestibular pathway of vestibular neuritis, a vascular lesions of the brain stem or the cerebellum may impair the vestibular apparatus resulting in vertigo.

    03:35 Demyelination and once you lose your insulation you can have cross talk between nerve fibers leading to fault signals.

    03:46 Certain drugs and ingestion of too much alcohol will certainly disrupt the vestibular system.

    03:53 And acoustic tumors can also cause this types of symptoms.

    04:05 The last vestibular disorder that I want you to understand is that of that Meniere’s disease.

    04:12 This table will guide you through the symptoms that associated with Meniere’s disease as well as the causes.

    04:22 Meniere’s disease is characterized by abrupt recurrent attacks of vertigo.

    04:29 There’s also an associated hearing loss with this disorder.

    04:34 Tinnitus or ringing of the ears is associated with Meniere’s disease.

    04:40 Patients may complain of excess ear pressure or fullness with in their ear And nausea and vomiting are associated symptoms as well.

    04:53 Several different causes to consider again, vestibular neuritis, vascular lesions of the brain stem or cerebellum, demyelination, certain drugs and alcohol and acoustic tumors.

    05:14 Now this were the same causes that we walk through that you saw earlier with vertigo.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Verstibular Disorders: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, Vertigo and Ménière's Disease by Craig Canby, PhD is from the course Auditory System and Vestibular System. It contains the following chapters:

    • Clinical Correlations – Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
    • Clinical Correlations – Vertigo
    • Clinical Correlations – Ménière's Disease

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Migration of otoconia to semicircular canals
    2. Demyelination
    3. Acoustic tumors
    4. Vascular lesions of brainstem
    5. Vestibular neuritis
    1. Nystagmus
    2. Tinnitus
    3. Vertigo
    4. Hearing loss
    5. Ear fullness
    1. It has acute onset and short duration of episodes
    2. Demyelination is the most common cause of BPPV
    3. A single episode can last hours
    4. Change of position has no effect on BPPV
    5. It is a very rare disorder

    Author of lecture Verstibular Disorders: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, Vertigo and Ménière's Disease

     Craig Canby, PhD

    Craig Canby, PhD


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    Great lesson!
    By Hudanur Z. on 26. September 2017 for Verstibular Disorders: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, Vertigo and Ménière's Disease

    Clear and concise, easy to understand and very clinically relevant.