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Ionizing Radiation and Radioactivity

Radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma is the transfer and emission of energy in the form of waves and particles. When we speak of radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma, what is usually meant is ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma, exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment to which alters—and can kill—living body cells. Ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma is often used to kill pathogenic germs and in this way sterilize/disinfect sensitive equipment. However, as stated, it is very harmful to live cells, including the human body. Even so, with drastically reduced doses of radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma, ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma is used in radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma therapy for the treatment of cancer, e.g., in positron emission tomography. This article will equip you with exam relevant knowledge about ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma and radioactivity.

Last updated: May 19, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Contents

Radioactivity

In 1896, Henri Becquerel discovered a hitherto unknown, non-continuous ray that could penetrate many materials—including black paper—leading to fogging of photographic plates. Two years later, Pierre and Marie Curie, conducting experiments on uranium ore and uranium pitchblende, discovered 2 radioactive elements known as polonium and radium.

Radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma that carries sufficient energy to free negatively-charged electrons from their atoms or molecules is known as ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma leaving behind positively-charged atoms. Unstable atomic nuclei are transformed spontaneously into other atoms, which results in ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma. This phenomenon is known as radioactivity.

Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter

Types of radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma

Image: “Strahlenarten en EN Erythema nodosum is an immune-mediated panniculitis (inflammation of the subcutaneous fat) caused by a type IV (delayed-type) hypersensitivity reaction. It commonly manifests in young women as tender, erythematous nodules on the shins. Erythema Nodosum” by Napy1kenobi. License: CC BY 3.0

Naturally occurring radioactive materials include the elements radium and potassium Potassium An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol k, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39. 10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance. Hyperkalemia. Natural radioactivity occurs during the stabilization of a radionuclide resulting in the emission of alpha, beta, and gamma rays.

Above a specific dosage Dosage Dosage Calculation, all radioactive materials, especially those that emit ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma, become a health hazard.

The transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology in which the nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles of an unstable atom loses energy via radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma emission is known as radioactive decay. The timing of radioactive decay of an atom cannot be predicted and is not a subject of external influence.

Activity

The nuclear decay rate A (activity) is the quotient resulting after dividing the number of decays N by the amount of time t:

A = dN / dt

Activity is measured in units of becquerel [Bq]. An obsolete unit is the Curie, which was named after its discoverer Marie Curie in 1896. One Curie is equivalent to 3.7 * 1010 decays per second.

If a mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast is also factored into the equation, it is known as specific radioactivity—which is the decay by a specific concentration of radionuclide atoms. In this case, its mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast may refer to that of the:

  • radionuclide alone.
  • the chemical element (isotopes included) or compound.
  • the entire sample.

The actual activity is an important characteristic of radioactive material and is easy to calculate. If N is the number of the decaying nuclei in the substance and λ is the decay rate, the activity of the radioactive substance can be calculated as:

A = λ * N

Decay constant

Every element, or more specifically, every atom, has its own specific decay constant, which is the probability Probability Probability is a mathematical tool used to study randomness and provide predictions about the likelihood of something happening. There are several basic rules of probability that can be used to help determine the probability of multiple events happening together, separately, or sequentially. Basics of Probability of a specific type of nuclear decay independent of time and place.N.B. Every radionuclide is associated with a different decay constant!

Half-Life Half-Life The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

The time required for the number of radioactive atoms to reduce to half its original value is known as the half-life Half-Life The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.

Half-life Half-Life The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics (T1/2) = ln2 / λ

In this time frame, the number N of the radioactive nuclei of an element is reduced to half of its initial value N0.

N = N0 * (1/2)1/T

Every radioactive isotope has its own individual half-life Half-Life The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.

Wave types

  • α-rays: Alpha rays (α-rays) are made of 2 protons and 2neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a positively-charged helium nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles. Due to their positive charge, they can be deflected by electrical and magnetic fields. Alpha rays have a velocity of around 107 m/s.
  • β-rays: Beta rays (β-rays) are high-energy electron rays similar to those in cathode rays. They are made of electrons with a velocity ranging between 108 m/s and 0.99 c0. Due to their negative charge, they are deflected by electrical and magnetic fields. The rays are deflected in the direction opposite to alpha particles.
  • γ-rays: Gamma rays (γ-rays) are high-frequency electromagnetic waves with wavelengths of about 10-12 m and frequencies around 1020 Hz. Gamma rays are not deflected by electrical or magnetic fields.

When atoms are artificially transformed, isotopes can be left behind which emit the 4th kind of radioactive wave:

  • β+-rays: The β+-rays are positive electrons carrying the same mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast but opposite charge as electrons, and are called positrons.

The range of radioactive waves depends on the particle type and on the radioactive substance itself. Alpha radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma, for example, has a low range of only 4–8 cm.

Absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption of radioactive waves: Alpha rays can be stopped by a sheet of paper, while 1-mm-thick aluminum plates are necessary to stop beta waves. Thick lead walls are required to absorb gamma rays.

Radioactive Decay

Elements produce radioactive waves during their transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology into other elements. During this process, they produce large amounts of thermal energy. During elemental conversion, an atom will only ever emit one type of ray, either alpha or beta. They are never emitted together at the same time. Gamma rays, however, are typically emitted along with alpha or beta radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma.

Radium

If different radioactive materials are mixed together, like in a sample of non-pure radium, all 3 types of rays are present. The radium atomcan lose a helium nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles (i.e., alpha radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma) and convert into the noble gas radon Radon A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, and atomic number 86. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC):

Radon

Radon Radon A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, and atomic number 86. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) decays to radium A by emitting alpha radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma. Radium A emits further alpha rays to convert into radium B. Radium B emits beta and gamma rays until it is transformed into radium C. This element transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology continues leading to radium C1, radium D, radium E, and so on until the element becomes stable, i.e., no longer radioactive.

In contrast to historical names such as Radium A, B, and C, the names of modern elements are used in the following reaction equations.

Radioactive decay

Atomic stability: The ratio of the number of neutrons N to the number of protons Z increases proportionate to the atomic mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast number. Atoms are stabilized once a specific ratio of neutrons to protons is reached.

The prerequisites for a stable atomic nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles are as follows:

N/Z ~ 1 + 0,015 A2/3 with A < 250

A … the mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast number (N + Z)

N … the number of neutrons in the nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles

Z … the number of protons in the nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles

α-decay

Alpha decay (α-decay) is a type of radioactive decay generating an atom with an atomic number that is reduced by 2.

Example:

Alpha decay

α-decay occurs only in nuclei that carry high mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast numbers.

β-decay

Beta-decay (β-decay) entails the transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology of a proton into a neutron, or vice versa, inside the atomic nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles. The atomic nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles is converted into a nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles with an atomic number increased by one.

Example:

Beta decay

β-decay draws an atom closer to the optimal ratio of protons and neutrons. During this transformation Transformation Change brought about to an organism’s genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (transfection; transduction, genetic; conjugation, genetic, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell’s genome. Bacteriology, the nucleus Nucleus Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (cell nucleolus). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. The Cell: Organelles emits a detectable beta particle, which is an electron or positron.

β-decay, in the case of a relative excess of neutrons, emits an electron when a neutron is transformed into a proton. In the case of β+-decay, atoms possess an excess of protons. Here, a proton is converted into a neutron while emitting a positron.

γ-decay

During gamma decay (γ-decay), the charge of an atom remains unchanged. Therefore, the atomic number remains the same. Gamma decay usually occurs after other forms of decay such as α- or β-decay. The atomic nuclei relax from an excited state into lower-energy states.

Law of radioactive decay

Atomic decay represents statistical behavior. Due to a large number of atoms contained in radioactive materials, it is possible to formulate the laws of radioactive decay. The number of decayed unstable nuclides in a given period of time t is directly proportional to the number N0 of existing radioactive nuclides initially, the period itself, and the decay constant of the nuclide.

ΔN = λ * N0 * Δt

Dosimetry

The effect of radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma on the body or an object exposed to the radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma is determined by the energy transferred to that body. This effect applies not only to radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma emitted by radioactive substances but also to all ionizing radiations such as X-rays X-rays X-rays are high-energy particles of electromagnetic radiation used in the medical field for the generation of anatomical images. X-rays are projected through the body of a patient and onto a film, and this technique is called conventional or projectional radiography. X-rays or neutron rays.

The absorbed dose D is calculated by the ratio of energy E received by that body to the mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast m of the body. The physical quantity of absorbed radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma is measured by the unit gray (Gy).

D = E / m

The absorbed dosage Dosage Dosage Calculation is the ratio of the dose D to the exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment time.

D’ = D / t

The ionizing effect is one of the principal characteristics of radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma. The number of ions present in the air is a measure of the radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma intensity. The ion dose or exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment is calculated by measuring the ratio of ions in the air Q and the mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast m of the irradiated air:

Ion dose J = Q / m

Ion dose J generated by a specific gamma-ray with the activity of 1 becquerel from a distance of 1 m per second is indicated by the specific gamma constant. The ion dose is expressed by the corresponding energy dose, given that the required amount of energy to ionize a molecule is known for all substances.

It is important to determine the impact of ionizing radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma on living tissue when dealing with radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma protection issues.

X-Rays

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered X-rays X-rays X-rays are high-energy particles of electromagnetic radiation used in the medical field for the generation of anatomical images. X-rays are projected through the body of a patient and onto a film, and this technique is called conventional or projectional radiography. X-rays while working with experimental discharge tubes. He found that invisible rays can penetrate matter that is otherwise impenetrable to ‘normal’ light. He called this kind of radiation Radiation Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (sound), electromagnetic energy waves (such as light; radio waves; gamma rays; or x-rays), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as electrons; neutrons; protons; or alpha particles). Osteosarcoma X-rays X-rays X-rays are high-energy particles of electromagnetic radiation used in the medical field for the generation of anatomical images. X-rays are projected through the body of a patient and onto a film, and this technique is called conventional or projectional radiography. X-rays, also referred to as Röntgen rays in honor of his name.

Electromagnetic waves with photon energies in the range of 100 eV and several MeV are referred to as X-rays X-rays X-rays are high-energy particles of electromagnetic radiation used in the medical field for the generation of anatomical images. X-rays are projected through the body of a patient and onto a film, and this technique is called conventional or projectional radiography. X-rays.

X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests tube construction: An X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests tube consists of a cathode (usually tungsten) inside a vacuum, which is connected to a high voltage filament. Electrons exit the cathode via thermionic emission and are collected by an anode on the opposite side. A high voltage between the cathode and the anode accelerates the electrons from the cathode to the anode. A fluorescent screen is placed before the X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests tube.

X-ray tube

Image: “WaterCooledXrayTube” by Roentgen-Roehre.svg: Hmilch. License: Public Domain

Electrons exit the cathode and collide with the tungsten anode, which emits photons that receive some of the kinetic energy. Invisible rays illumine the fluorescent screen via glass transition. The entire system is located in a vacuum in order to function.

The amount of photon energy depends on the amount of energy transferred to the photon, which varies greatly each time. If all the kinetic energy is transferred to a single photon, it is referred to as maximum photon energy:

Emax = Ekin = e * UB

The amount of available energy depends on the degree of accelerating voltage UB, i.e., the higher the voltage, the faster is the movement of electrons before they hit the anode, and thus the energy of the photons is increased. If the heating voltage is higher, additional electrons separate from the cathode.

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